As the polymorphism stands out due to the increase in seed mortality, its adaptive value is questionable. Angola, Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. 2: 1-351. & Monro, A. Dominican Republic, Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. yellows) have a matching degree of moisture (F = 0.002, p = 0.95), which is significantly less than the brown, dark brown and black seeds (F = 69, p < 0.001). Sumatera, 1. © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Impermeability occurs in the yellow seeds, which are more dehydrated in maturation. Honduras, f. in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 42: 270 (1914). (1987)., Herbarium Catalogue Specimens 2.4. A Manual of New Guinea Legumes. Pandey, R.P. (2012). The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The most notable among these are Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae) aposematic larvae, whose seed-based diet confers resistance against the predation of the eggs by ants, and of larval and adult forms by spiders [29] [30] . Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon 7: 108-381. Taiwan, The article describes the somatic polymorphism in, de Figueiredo, P. and Lindoso Silva, N. (2018) Somatic Polymorphism Variation in. A significant effect of autogamy can be observed through manual pollination, in Figure 5. Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517. Windward Is., Spatio-temporal variation in polymorphism degree (relative proportion of different forms) and in the predation rate (% ± σ) in Crotalaria retusa L. seeds. Naskar, K. (1993). (2011). Thus, some variation in the proportion of dormant and quiescent forms among. Spatio-temporal variation in polymorphism and in predation rates was estimated between the habitats, on the coast and inland, in two seasons: at the height of the dry season in October and at the height of the rainy season in March. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Laccadive Is., & Steyermark, J.A. R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 218, fig. Since autogamy tends to reduce the genetic polymorphism [16] , polymorphic changes between habitats in self-compatible species may not reflect genetic differences between populations, but differences in selfing rates. Germination of the Crotalaria retusa L polymorphic seeds. Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. The influence of pollen origin on seed color was estimated through the technics of breeding systems analyses. It can grow from 60 - 120cm tall[310. Bot. Therefore, regarding physiology & Atha, D.E. Flora of West Tropical Africa Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The polymorphism increases during the rainy season due to the significant reduction in the proportion of dormant seeds (yellow and dark yellow, F =. Bak. Bismarck Archipelago, Eritrea, Ecuador, Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux. We performed manual pollination and germination experiments, and monitored the behavior of C. retusa … Ann. (1994). This fact reinforces the hypothesis about the influence of the degree of dehydration in the acquisition of impermeability on the so-called “hard seeds” [19] [20] , but contradicts that of impermeability as a consequence of phenol oxidation in the seed coat during dehydration, as suggested by several authors [21] [22] [23] . (eds.) Back to 12: 19: 19: Pods 2-seeded, c. 5 mm long. The yellow seeds (yellows and dark. Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Senaratna, L. K. (2001). The reduction in the viability of seeds under wetter weather conditions, coupled with a reduction in fruit/flower ratio, seed/fruit ratio and an increase in predation rate implies that reproduction is optimal in the dry season, which should favor the adaptation of the species to the Semi-arid and seasonally dry Atlantic coast, limiting its expansion to the “always humid” western Amazon. Liberia, Polymorphism Characterization: Determination of the Mass, Humidity Percentage and Seed Water Absorption Rate. Predation Rates versus Oxidation of Phenols in Seed Coat. (2004). Description. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department. Figure 3. P. Ambasta, S. P. (1986). (1984). Join our friendly community that shares tips and ideas for gardens, along with seeds and plants. (1976). The predation rate in the populations is directly proportional to the concentration of oxidized phenols (p = 0.004) in the seeds (Figure 6). In somatic dimorphism dormant and quiescent seeds of C. retusa L. develop in the same fruit by distinct metabolic pathways, not by heterocrony. it is a dimorphism. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Colombo. Borneo, seasonal as consequence of increased viability of dormant seeds under drier Each individual may produce yellow dormant seeds, brown Acute intoxication by Crotalaria retusa … The aim of this work was to characterize the polymorphism in C. retusa seeds and the role that autogamy plays in the phenomenon. Ghazanfar, S.A. (2007). Upper case letters compare seed mass and the lower cases compare the degree of humidity. Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Flower colour; life form. Roy. Back to 18: 20: 20: Leaflets hairy on both surfaces; lateral leaflets much reduced, usually less than half the length of terminal leaflet. To understand the apparent rise of polymorphism on the coastal regions, we compared the differences in polymorphism between littoral and inland populations, as well as its seasonal variation. Sierra Leone, value. Willis, J. C. & Gardiner, J. S. (1901). Venezuelan Antilles, Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. The chemical and anatomic changes that alter the seed coat permeability are not completely understood but it is considered that impermeability is due to the final thickening, by the suberization or lignifications of columnar cell walls in seed coats [17] [18] . Pods 3-4 x 0.8-1 cm, oblong, cylindrical, slightly broader upwards. Bangladesh, Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. Guatemala, Since dark brown and black seeds are inviable, the C. retusa polymorphism, regarding germination physiology, is in fact a dimophism: yellow seeds with physical dormancy and quiescent brown seeds. (2012). which exhibit wide geographical distribution in the humid tropics. Haiti, Belize, Zaïre, Art and Illustrations in Digifolia A Guide to Herbaceous and Shrub Legumes of Queensland. The research was realized in urbanized areas in São Luís, MA (2˚31'34''S, 44˚12'32''W), in the Northeast Brazil. RBG Kew. The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. maritima Trimen . 1990). Congo, dimorphism is Stegelmeier BL et al. It is a consequence of the increase in viability of dormant hard seeds under arid climate; which induces the predominance of dormancy in drought, quiescence during the rainy season and equitable proportions of the two forms on the wettest coastline during drought. Wedge-leaf Rattlepod. Cuba, We, show that Plant Wealth of the Lower Ganga Delta Vol. (2015). Campus. The brown seeds have the moderately permeable coat, absorbing approximately 15% of water during the same period, while the dark brown and black seeds have a permeable coat, absorbing between 30% and 35% of humidity, respectively, after 6 hours of continuous hydration (Figure 2). The seasonal alternation between quiescence and dormancy in these environments has an apparent adaptative advantage, allowing the species to react opportunistically to seasonal rains. Flora Zambesiaca Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção Water absorption by Crotalaria retusa L. polymorphic seeds. Image from Stuppy & Kesseler©Papadakis Publisher. 2: 1-164. French Guiana, Crotalaria incana: Leaflets mostly 1 cm wide. Different letters indicate statistically distinct values (p < 0.05). Although C. retusa plants are annual and have a short life-cycle, of less than 5 months, the growth and reproduction of the populations approach the continuum in the Northeast region of Brazil, due to 5 to 6 asynchronous annuals life-cycles [2] . The sample was composed of three replicates of ten seeds each. Puerto Rico, 3.4. George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Ghana, & Heald, J. Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. Crotalaria retusa var. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Mali, Costa Rica, with humidity, accentuating polymorphism, also in response to the increase in (eds.) A. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Different letters indicate statistically distinct values (p < 0.05). Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis). III, Correll, D. S. & Correll, H. B. Madagascar, Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307. Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. The useful plants of India, Liogier, A. H. (1985). Northern Territory, Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The developmental series originating dormant yellow seeds and quiescent brown ones in the same fruit cannot be a case of heterocrony as defined by Silvertown [7] , actually representing distinct metabolic pathways. Georgia, International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011 The variation in the degree of polymorphism and in predation rate was compared by Two-way ANOVA, the decomposing variance as an effect attributed to the season (temporal variation) or to the habitat (spatial variation)., Kew Backbone Distributions Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. L. seeds. In Crotalaria retusa seeds, somatic polymorphism is visually identified as a color gradient in the seed coats, ranging from yellow to brown which appear to be associated with differences in the degree of dormancy by seed coat impermeability to water: physical dormancy [17] . Synonym. & Hewson, H.J. This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Correlation between phenol content and predation rate. Malaya, A (1946). (eds.) These plants get their name from the sound made when their pod-like fruit is shaken, causing the seeds … (1978). The data were expressed as the percentage of water absorbed in relation to the seeds initial water percentage. The experiment was performed with four replicates of 50 seeds each. Predation is a strong selective force; a single developing larva consumes all seeds in the fruit and predation, which is low in drought, increases significantly during the rainy season, reaching up to 80% of all seeds produced in certain populations. Iran, Guinea, This oxidative browning has been positively correlated with thicker cell walls that provide greater mechanical restraint and reduced permeability to water and/or gases, ways in which the seed coat exerts its germination restrictive action [22] [23] [24] . MacKee, H.S. 2.5. Jones, M. (1991). Desc. & Dilwakar, P.G. The “rainy season” extends from January to June and is characterized by precipitation between 1.600 mm to 2.400 mm, with a water surplus over 1.000 mm. In C. retusa, root modifications and rhizodegradation are strategies for tolerance.. C. retusa … Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort. The predation of reproductive structures has a profound effect on the evolution of adaptive response [31] and the spatio-temporal variation in the predation rate can influence both selection on plants traits and its population dynamic [32] . Somalia, Inviable seeds, which together with the quiescent ones concentrate oxidized phenols on seed coat, may constitute chemical defenses against predation by larvae of U. ornatrix L., whose activity increases significantly in the rainy season. Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192. Fiji, Kenya, (2003). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33. (1989). The polymorphism stands out during the rainy season and on the humid coast during drought, due to the increase in the unviable dark brown seeds: a consequence of mortality of dormant seeds with increasing humidity. The dark yellow and brown forms stand out both due to their greater mass, a characteristic of unequivocal adaptive value [35] [36] [37] , as well as by their quantity, comprising between 50% and 80% of all seeds produced. Crotalaria retusifolia Stokes . F. W. Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. 2: 1-238. J. Bosser et a, Robertson, S. A. Crotalaria retusa L. (Fabaceae, Faboidea) is an annual subshrub leguminous, native from Asia, Africa and Australia that has been actively introduced in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world to be used in agroforestry systems [1] . A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. New Caledonia, Histologic lesions of the liver were characterized by centrilobular necrosis. (2008). Cambodia, Nobre VMT et al. Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141. Notwithstanding the effect of autogamy, the most significant variation in this dimorphism is seasonal, due to the increase in the proportion of dormant seed (viability of dormant seeds) with an increase in environmental aridity. Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). A check list of the flowering plants of Sri Lanka. The predation was identified through a hole in the fruit, about 3 mm in diameter, caused by the outbreak of Utheteisa ornatrix L. (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) adults and through the remains of fragmented seeds. volume 2. Field Museum of Natural History. Lesser Antilles Arnold Arboretum, Liogier, A. H. (1988). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57. The prevalence of temporal variation over spatial variation indicates that the plasticity is phenotypic, which leads us to reject the hypothesis expressed in the introduction, that the largest polymorphism in the littoral could represent an ecotypic adaptation. Rodrigues, 1958, Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. Browse pictures and read growth / cultivation information about Crotalaria Species, Rattleweed, Wedge-Leaf Rattlepod, Yellow Lupin, Yellow Rattlebox (Crotalaria retusa… Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. (2018). weather conditions. (1949). Crotalaria retusa. (eds.) Southwest Caribbean, Scientific Research Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory . Silva Flores, A. Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. Lisowski, S. (2009). Inventário e distribuição geográfica de Leguminosae no arquipélago de Marajó, PA, Brazil Hoehnea 40: 627-647. (eds.) Galápagos, Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. Numerical values in the figure indicate the percentage of different seed color class. This increase of “hard seeds” in the drought is consistent with the effects of low relative humidity in the formation of impermeable coat [7] and with the hypothesis of the evolution of physical dormancy as one adaptation to environmental aridity [17] . 2015. Lesser Sunda Is., Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. Bak. Seeds for sale starting at € 4.50. 2. Flora of Panama. II, Singh, N. P. (1988). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). The results were correlated with the seasonal variation of humidity in the environment and seed predation rates. Jawa, Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. & Edwards, S. Flora of Eastern Karnataka Vol. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Dy Phon, P. (2000). Bahamas, Crotalaria retusa: Previous name used in the website: Synonyms: Family name: FABACEAE: English name: Rattle weed: Local name: Kaha andanahiriya (කහ අඬනහිරිය) * Tamil name: Sanskrit name: … Society Is., (1990). Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sorting Crotalaria names / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE (2) Clastogenic effect of extracts obtained from Crotalaria retusa L. and Crotalaria … Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. We have seen Crotalaria retusa, which is commonly called Rattleweed sometimes being sold in California incorrectly as Crotalaria agatiflora The information on this page is based on research conducted about this plant in the San Marcos Growers library, from online … Pakistan, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. A. One aspect that should be considered is that the unviable seeds, as well as the quiescent ones, concentrate oxidized phenols in the seed coat. E. Africa, Milne-Redhead & Polhill, Leon, H. & Alain, H. (1951). It should be grazed by goats when it reaches 4 ft, or roughly 45 days after … The seasonal increase of chemical defenses in seeds is accompanied by a great reduction in the number of seeds produced (reduction in the fruit/flower ratio and seed/fruit ratio) resulting in an offer of a diet with fewer, smaller seeds (dark brown seeds make up most of the unviable seeds and it has 70% of the whole seed mass), and rich in phenols. Tanzania, An annual shrub to about 1 m tall with pretty, bluish green, wedge-shaped foliage and upright flower stalks with bright yellow, pea-like flowers followed by black pods with small, rattling seeds … This effect remains in both periods (season effect not significant, F = 2.93, p = 0.095), despite the high seed mortality in the rainy season. (2009). Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort. Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Legumes of South Asia. (2008). (1959). Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew, International Legume Database and Information Service Espermatofitas: 1-1576. It is interesting to consider that quiescence, favoring immediate colonization, is maximal when the pollinators are present, while dormancy, favoring resilience and sporadic and irregular colonization, prevails in their absence. Featured: Lysimachia arvensis A Checklist: 1-536. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 182 (1952). Guinea-Bissau, This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia. & Montiel, O.M. Therefore, regarding physiology it is a dimorphism. Philippines, We would also like to thank Dr. Emília C. Girnos for revising the manuscript and for the constructive hours of discussion. Seeds Seeds c. 5–5.5 mm long, oblique-cordiform, with the narrow end strongly incurved, finely papillose, yellowish or brown. Weight and moisture content of Crotalaria retusa L. polymorphic seeds. Legumes of South Asia: a check-list. The seasonal alternation between Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew, Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. of dormant seeds., Kew Science Photographs Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862. Thailand, Autogamy reduces the polymorphism by favoring the formation of hard seeds, while cross-pollination keeps significant proportions of quiescent seeds, maintaining the polymorphism (Pollination effect F = 4.29, p = 0.045). In all treatments, the fruit/flower ratio (R) and the number of seeds per fruit (S) were higher in the dry season. Although some variation in somatic dimorphism between populations of C. retusa L. is generated by the variation in the rate of self-fertilization, with autogamy favoring dormant forms, this variation is mainly seasonal, a plastic response (phenotypic plasticity) to the change of humidity in seasonally dry environments. Ethiopia, Figure 1. Proportions were arcsine transformed before statistical analysis to ensure homogeneity of variance (non-transformed data appear in all figures). Sri Lanka, Devil Bean, Rattleweed, Shack Shack. Missouri Botanical Garden. Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. The proportion of quiescent seeds (brown) remains constant (F = 0.50, p = 0.48). Spatio-Temporal Variation in Polymorphism and Predation Rates, The analysis of Figure 4 reveals the prevalence of temporal variation over the spatial in the degree of polymorphism (the relative proportion of the different forms). Vietnam, Flore illustrée du Sénégal 5: 1-658. Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Common Name: null Difficulty: null Fertilizer: null Flower Colour: null Height: null Soil: null Sunlight: null Temperature: null Water: null Bloom Time: null., Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible Those of intermediate coloring (dark yellows and browns) exhibit the greatest mass (F = 119, p < 0.01), while the darkest seeds (dark brown and black) are the smallest ones (F = 140.3, p < 0.001). Figure 4. China Southeast, (eds.) Missouri Botanical Garden. Seeds contain 34.6% crude protein (Duke, 1983). (1946). 3, 2: 1-282. Gambia, Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283. 17.88, p = 0.001) and significant increase in the proportion of unviable seeds (dark brown and black, F = 24.62, p < 0.0001). Dolichos cuneifolius Forssk. West Himalaya, The water absorption curve was obtained by periodically weighing, for 16 hours, samples of hydrated seeds in distilled water. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. Seeds of C. retusa were found in large amounts in the rumen of the dead animals. Crotalaria retusa has been found in the following 23 conservation areas: Occurrence Native Status Bill Sadowski Park: Present Not Native, Naturalized Crystal Lake Sand Pine Scrub Natural Area: Present … populations is due to the variation in the frequency of the pollinator. Missouri Botanical Garden. We performed manual pollination and germination experiments, and monitored the behavior of C. retusa… Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Lepschi, B. The powdered seeds, mixed with milk, are eaten in order to … (eds.) Bermuda, Flora of Tropical East Africa. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. MIM, Deurne. Polymorphism Characterization: Germination. variation is a phenotypic response to changes of humidity in the environment The high concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids makes the Crotalaria ssp seeds toxic leading to fewer natural predators. Flora of Tropical East Africa Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. Plant Red Data Book for Rodrigues, Howard, R. A. et al. In the seeds of Crotalaria retusa L. the chromatic gradient, from yellow to brown, correlates directly with the tegument permeability degree. The chromatic polymorphism, with tones varying from yellow to brown seeds, is attributed to the differential oxidation of phenolic compounds in the seed coats, which are concentrated as polymers that become cross-linked to wall components during seed maturation [21] [22] . Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. Chromatic polymorphism in C. retusa L. seeds. 2003, Papilionaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel.
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