The scientific study of the causes of delinquency and crime has been historically guided by theory. By simon jenkins. “Tracking Epistemic Violence, Tracking Practices of Silencing.” Hypatia, 26(2), 236-257. p. 250. Featured Image is Destruction from The Course of Empire, by Thomas Cole. Clearly, then, Bailey allows for sincere disagreement and criticism of Social Justice scholarship while drawing attention to a distinct phenomenon. Learn more about the key theories and ideas that have shaped the development of philosophy and spawned fierce debates. They make a large number of errors that indicate a basic unfamiliarity with the subject matter they purport to explain. Or been told that being... Free Shipping on all orders over $10. [14], Tim Smith-Laing in The Daily Telegraph says the authors "leap from history to hysteria" and the book fails to fulfill the "values of rational, evidence-based argument" that it praises. 26–48. [8] Applebaum, Barbara (2010). [4] The fact that Africana philosophy and Chinese philosophy continue to be neglected in American universities makes it harder for philosophers working in these areas, as they bear the burden of having to justify how their scholarship is really philosophy, hence the title of Dotson’s paper. Moreover, it obviously fails to accommodate the toddler example: how could a toddler’s ignorant conduct constitute repression by a dominant culture? Cynical Theories How Activist Scholarship Made Everything About Race, Gender, and Identity - and Why This Harms Everybody (eBook) : Pluckrose, Helen : "Outlines the origin and evolution of postmodern thought over the last half century and argues that the unchecked spread and application of postmodern ideas -- from academia, to activist circles, to the public at large - presents an authoritarian … Further, the idea that denying the universality of science and reason—which, we should note, Pluckrose and Lindsay have now attributed to Dotson in three different contexts—is somehow connected to standpoint theory is just incorrect. First, brief tangent: I have enjoyed Rick Roderick’s lectures, but I must put down for the record that I was... 2. What would be important, in my opinion, is to have a self-awareness of these biases and specifically work to counter them in your next “takedown.” Have you read that certain people shouldn’t practice yoga or cook Chinese food? Sam actually provides examples and quotes passages. I have attempted to condense the book into its most salient points keeping it … There are four basic theories of crime, and knowing and understanding each one is imperative for one to succeed in any legal profession. As a matter of fact, they do. This is a brief summary of takeaways from reading Cynical Theories by James Lindsay and Helen Pluckrose of “grievance studies affair” infamy. The authors present several academic fields—postcolonial theory, queer theory, critical race theory, intersectionality, fourth-wave feminism, gender studies, fat studies, and ableism—and describe how the 'applied postmodernism' approach has developed in each field. Have you read that you shouldn't practice yoga or cook Chinese food? Cynical Theories by Helen Pluckrose. Cynicism is an attitude characterized by a general distrust of others' motives. “How is this Paper Philosophy?” Comparative Philosophy, 3 (1):3-29. p. 7 n. 3. Rather than giving up on science and reason, Code explicitly recommends that “respect for empirical evidence, commitment to truth-seeking and objectivity, [and] adherence to public standards of inquiry remain.”[6]. Elsewhere in the book they conflate Derrida’s poststructuralism with a position that is in fact entirely structuralist. It is high time that the West should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish its views, … --Alan Sokal, Professor of Mathematics, University College London, and coauthor of Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science, " Cynical Theories is a brilliant book, offering an incisive and much needed critique of the cult of social justice. He cited the conclusion "refreshing" in that they offered no "counter-revolutionary strategy" or "demand that Theory be suppressed," but rather only call for the support of "reason, debate, tolerance, democracy and the rule of law." Philosophical Theories & Ideas. I recommend reading the book and deciding for yourself. The Truth According To Social Justice - A Review Of "Cynical Theories" Tyler Durden Sun, 09/27/2020 - 21:00 Authored by Jonathan Church via Quillette.com, A review of Cynical Theories: How Activist Scholarship Made Everything about Race, Gender, and Identity―and Why This Harms Everybody, by Helen Pluckrose and James Lindsay, Pitchstone Publishing (August 25th, 2020), 352 pages.… Here they are far less charitable to their targets, and they take cheap shots in passing, a strategy likely to prevent anyone who has caught Theory from being cured by reading this. In 2011, Dotson wrote “Tracking Epistemic Violence, Tracking Practices of Silencing,” in which she defines “epistemic violence” as “a failure of an audience to communicatively reciprocate, either intentionally or unintentionally, in linguistic exchanges owing to pernicious ignorance.”[1] As Dotson explains it, communicative reciprocity is roughly equivalent to mutual comprehension in a linguistic exchange, and pernicious ignorance is ignorance that is, in the relevant context, harmful. “Social Justice Scholarship and Thought” stands heads and shoulders above the rest of Cynical Theories for its sophistry and imprecision. p. 113. To illustrate their claim that “Theory views evidence and reason to be the cultural property of white Western men,” Pluckrose and Lindsay write, “Dotson famously called the dominance of reason and science a ‘culture of justification’ in 2012 and argued instead for a ‘culture of praxis.’” The grain of truth in this slanderous sandcastle is that Dotson does in fact argue that what she calls a “culture of justification” in professional philosophy ought to be replaced by a “culture of praxis.” But for all that, the implications that Dotson thinks academic philosophers should do away entirely with reasoned argumentation and scientific evidence and that she sees these tools as usable only by “white Western men” are, frankly, appalling. Cynical Theories - 9781800750043 9781800750043 | eBay ISBN-13: 9781800750043, 978-1800750043. Cynical Theories is a book well worth reading. 4.8 out of 5 stars. Pluckrose and Lindsay also interpret Bailey’s article as arguing for the need to replace critical thinking with “critical pedagogy,” citing a passage where she draws this distinction. Being White, Being Good: White Complicity, White Moral Responsibility, and Social Justice Pedagogy. Critical Theory has a narrow and a broad meaning in philosophy and in the history of the social sciences. the style of Cynical Theories “makes debate on neutral ground almost impossible” because “distortions are mixed in with evaluative remarks in such a way as to obscure the operations and values of the approaches being discussed and so frame them negatively − and in an accumulative way”. It is high time that the West should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish its views, its aims, its tendencies, and meet this horror story of the Specter of Social Justice with a Manifesto of Western civilization itself. The idea that social scientists should or would choose among theories based on how cynical the theories are, therefore, is rooted in a mis-construal of what social science is all about. How Activist Scholarship Made Everything about Race, Gender, and Identity and Why This Harms Everybody ... What listeners say about Cynical Theories. The quintessential philosopher of the enlightenment, Immanuel Kant, would have been as harsh a critic of postmodernism as any, and he certainly would have rejected the postmodern principles from above in their original, applied, and reified manifestations. "[11], A Spiked reviewer says that the authors provide "a huge service in translating the language of today’s activists and explaining to readers not steeped in critical theory or postmodernism how the world looks from the perspective of those who are," and that it "successfully draws out how, over the course of six decades, the burgeoning popularity of critical theory within university humanities and social-science faculties shifted postmodernism from a minority academic pursuit to an all-encompassing political framework." This handbook grants the reader access to the tradition and the core concepts and approaches of critical theory. Hoadley-Brill concludes that the chapter "suffers from the exact same problems Pluckrose and Lindsay diagnose in Social Justice scholarship—namely, misplaced cynicism combined with unwarranted confidence in such cynical interpretations. What Dotson means by “culture of justification” in the paper in question (“How is This Paper Philosophy?”) has absolutely nothing to do with epistemic, scientific, or rational justification. Average Customer Ratings. 1. In Cynical Theories, Helen Pluckrose and James Lindsay document the evolution and the dogma behind these ideas. It looks like that’s them, so far. After his recent indoctrination into the woke cult of academia, he has begun to develop interests in feminist epistemology and critical philosophy of race. Maybe the authors were unaware of this fact, though. If you can’t recognize this, you’re not much of a philosopher (yet). Elsewhere, Lindsay traces the origins of neo-Marxist critical theory to the Critique of Pure Reason, which he describes as “the anti-Enlightenment project of Immanuel Kant.” No references are given for this hilariously misguided historical claim—a claim which could have prevented Lindsay (and perhaps Pluckrose, too, if Lindsay has sold her on it) from appreciating just how antithetical to Theory Fricker’s Kantian notions of justice and injustice actually are. It is about a nakedly illiberal set of cynical theories that find their origin in the ideas of postmodern intellectuals dating back to the late 1960s. The review states, "What’s largely missing from Cynical Theories is a broader political contextualisation of social-justice activism. By: Helen Pluckrose , James Lindsay. This third wave of Theory begins in the 2010s, when scholars turn postmodernism on its head: far from entailing radical skepticism, the central tenets of postmodernism become the foundation of Social Justice dogmatism. Arnold, Fricker is most certainly not a postmodernist. These people are firmly in the center whose politics inevitably lead back to the Democratic Party, representational politics, blind faith in unions, and performative electoral initiatives. Social disorganization theory: A person’s physical and social environments are primarily responsible for the behavioral choices that person makes. Categories: Politics & Social Sciences , Philosophy. As such, it requires rigorous critique. Cancel Culture indoctrination and Critical Theory is a real phenomena in academia that is spreading even to elementary schools. Critical scrutiny exposes an embarrassing fact: Pluckrose and Lindsay have done a better job of revealing themselves as cynical theorists than revealing any of the theories they discuss as cynical. You might think of what I’m trying to say in this example: At the end of STEM research, the authors must declare potential conflicts of interest. He wrote that book illuminates "one of those sidetracks in Western ideology that led to both Salem and Weimar. Beauty. I also think their book is timely, topical, well-researched and necessary. In their lengthy essay publicizing the “Grievance Studies” hoax, however, Pluckrose, Lindsay, and Boghossian describe the purpose of “When the Joke Is on You” thus: “to see if journals will accept an argument that shuts down critiques of social justice scholarship as a lack of engagement and understanding, even if one engages fully and knowledgeably with the ideas to the extent of having a paper on them published in a leading academic journal.” Anyone who bothers to actually read “When the Joke Is on You” will notice the problems with this characterization: first, the paper does not advocate shutting down any critiques that actually contain knowledgeable engagement; second, neither of the hoaxes cited in the paper contain such engagement; third, both hoaxes cited in the paper were published in remarkably shoddy academic journals, as Sokal’s was not even peer reviewed and Lindsay and Boghossian’s was published in a predatory pay-to-publish journal. Worst of all, however, is the frequent tendency of Pluckrose and Lindsay to characterize as postmodernist thinkers who cannot by any scholarly standard be put into that bucket. Pluckrose and Lindsay guide the reader through postmodernism’s metamorphosis as it transforms into the “applied postmodernism” of the ‘80s and ‘90s—comprising the new fields of postcolonial theory, queer theory, critical race theory, gender studies, feminist studies, disability studies, and fat studies—which eventually gives rise to the most dangerous of all postmodernism’s transmutations, the “reified postmodernism” Pluckrose and Lindsay sometimes refer to as “Social Justice scholarship.”. A review of Cynical Theories: How Activist Scholarship Made Everything about Race, Gender, and Identity―and Why This Harms Everybody, by Helen Pluckrose and James Lindsay, Pitchstone Publishing (August 25th, 2020), 352 pages. Chapter eight of Cynical Theories, “Social Justice Scholarship and Thought,” is an especially egregious example of this, and so will be our main focus. [5] See, e.g., Wylie, Alison (2003). To support our work, and thereby receive access to a bimonthly newsletter, community chat, or other benefits, please visit patreon.com/LiberalCurrents. Their opponents, I felt, were surely well-intentioned and did not really believe what they were accused of believing." All the powers of old civil society have entered into a wicked alliance to convoke this specter: colleges and universities, broadcasters and newspapers, preachers and politicians. Though their distortion of philosophical scholarship unquestionably peaks when they write about Dotson, the authors fail to give accurate depictions of several other philosophers throughout the remainder of the chapter. Browse The TLS Shop for a big selection of Issue No. Nothing new here. What Cynical Theories expresses is not a paranoid state of mind. These ideas have coalesced into a central thesis which posits that truth, knowledge, and morality are so wrapped up in discourses of power and privilege that they must be understood as socially constructed rather than as the fruits of objective inquiry. Browse The TLS Shop for a big selection of Issue No. You clearly need to work hard at rigorous self-assessment of motivation and bias. I believe that your critique is an important contribution to the evolving topic of problems with post-modernism. 4: 876-92. p. 881. Cynical Theories explains how social justice theory has developed into the driving force of the culture war of the late 2010s — and proposes a philosophically liberal way to counter its manifestations in scholarship, activism and everyday life. At least you’re admitting that all you’re doing is a ‘hit piece.’ Or been told that being... Free Shipping on all orders over $10. Their ignorance of this distinction is especially frustrating because Pluckrose and Lindsay obviously know it exists, as is evident from the hoax paper they (in collaboration with Peter Boghossian) successfully submitted to the feminist philosophy journal Hypatia. Theories, models and perspectives - Cheat sheet for field instructors Major Theories – Used in Social Work Practice Systems Theory Psychodynamic Social Learning Conflict Developmental Theories Theories of moral reasoning (Kohlberg, Gilligan) Theories of cognition (Piaget) p. 93. In Being White, Being Good, Applebaum employs a Foucauldian conception of power to argue that white people are complicit in systemic racism, and acknowledging this fact is not sufficient to absolve oneself from this complicity. Cynical Theories: How Activist Scholarship Made Everything about Race, Gender, and Identity—and Why This Harms Everybody Helen Pluckrose, James A. Lindsay Have you heard that language is violence and that science is sexist? [13], Nick Fouriezos of OZY magazine describes Cynical Theories as "the first cohesive attempt to tie together the intellectual strands of the intellectual dark web" and notes its "blind spots" in suggesting that the movements for civil rights, LGBT protections, and feminism had achieved almost total victory by the 1980s while ignoring significant issues that had persisted since then. A close examination reveals that Pluckrose and Lindsay are not merely cherry-picking thinkers or quotes to make their points; they are cherry-picking in an apple orchard. Buy a cheap copy of Cynical Theories: How Activist... book by James A. Lindsay. [1] Dotson, Kristie (2011). [10] Bailey, Alison (2017). AND… [11] Bailey, Alison (2017). Your piece is excellent written evidence of how an academic (yourself) succumbs to confirmation bias, the Backfire Effect and several more cognitive biases. She is the editor of Areo Magazine and the author of many popular essays on postmodernism, critical theory, liberalism, secularism, and feminism. New York, NY: Routledge. Moreover, we should be especially skeptical of the claim that Fricker is working with “Theoretically derived notions of justice and injustice,” given that her analysis of the central justice violation in cases of epistemic injustice relies heavily on the Kantian dictum that we ought to treat our fellow human beings never merely as means to an end but always as ends in themselves. Cynical Theories. A Brief Book Summary from Books At a Glance. "[17], Writing in The Times Literary Supplement, Simon Jenkins wrote that within half an hour of starting he thought he had "had enough of this book. The authors wrap up their analysis in chapter eight by analyzing three works they see as denying certain groups the right to disagree with claims they find contestable: Being White, Being Good: White Complicity, White Moral Responsibility, and Social Justice Pedagogy by Barbara Applebaum (2010), “Tracking Privilege-Preserving Epistemic Pushback in Feminist and Critical Race Philosophy Classes” by Alison Bailey (2017), and White Fragility: Why It Is So Hard to Talk to White People about Race by Robin DiAngelo (2018). All the powers of old civil society have entered into a wicked alliance to convoke this specter: colleges and universities, broadcasters and newspapers, preachers and politicians. I am not an academic, yet the most cursory examination of major university faculties in the humanities show Critical (fill-In-the blank) Theory/Feminist Philosophy/Marxian Philosophy plays a major role in “research” endeavors. [7], Cynical Theories was named in the Financial Times' Best Books of the Year 2020 [8] and in The Times' Best Political and Current Affairs Books of the Year 2020 [9], A review published by the James G. Martin Center for Academic Renewal takes issue with some of the book's historical claims about feminism, as well as disagreeing with its policy suggestions, stating "Cynical Theories offers a great examination of the problem within academia, but so far as policy suggestions go, it only offers vague utopian wishes." The “Specter of Social Justice” is an apt name for the union of contemporary scholarship and activism Pluckrose and Lindsay identify as an existential threat to “the foundations upon which today’s advanced civilizations are built.” If we fail to fight back against this rising tide of illiberalism, they prophesy, we risk paying the ultimate price: the total collapse of Western civilization. Nevermind the fact that there is no evidence of these convictions in the work of Fricker, Dotson, Code, Wolf, Medina, Mills, or Bailey; the authors’ lived experience is surely worth more than citations with page numbers. Sadly,  none of these philosophers are postmodernists, and none of them can be reasonably interpreted as believers in “The Truth according to Social Justice.”, To see why, we need to get clear about what Pluckrose and Lindsay mean when they talk about reified postmodernism and the “Truth” with which they associate it. I generally agree with the authors’ assessment of DiAngelo’s book; taken as it is, White Fragility entails that any white person who denies anything DiAngelo says, or disagrees with any person of color on racial issues, is merely expressing their internalized white supremacy. Cynical Theories : How Activist Scholarship Made Everything About Race, Gender, and Identity: And Why This Harms Everybody, Hardcover by Pluckrose, Helen; Lindsay, John, ISBN 1634312023, ISBN-13 9781634312028, Brand New, Free shipping in the US "Outlines the origin and evolution of postmodern thought over the last half century and argues that the unchecked spread and application of … Criminology - Criminology - Sociological theories: The largest number of criminological theories have been developed through sociological inquiry. Available in: Paperback. Anticipating the objection that this definition is too expansive, Dotson simply bites the bullet; on her view, even a toddler who is ignorant of the harmful effects of fire will qualify as acting in an epistemically violent manner if, in failing to heed her mother’s warning against it, she starts a fire which causes harmful property damage. Statue of an unknown Cynic philosopher from the Capitoline Museums in Rome. cynical theories: how activist scholarship made everything about race, gender, and identity—and why this harms everybody, by helen pluckrose and james lindsay book notice: 40 favorite hymns for the christian year: a closer look at their spiritual and poetic meaning, by leland ryken 6131 books and the latest book reviews from The Times Literary Supplem Buy Cynical Theories 9781800750043 by Helen Pluckrose for only £1 In their own words, reified postmodernism accepts both the Knowledge Principle—“objective truth does not exist and knowledge is socially constructed and a product of culture”—and the Political Principle—“society is constructed through knowledge by language and discourses, designed to keep the dominant in power over the oppressed.” More ambitiously, the authors tell us that reified postmodernism sees these two principles as simply “The Truth,” as it “tolerates no dissent” and “expects everyone to agree or be ‘cancelled.’” Ultimately, reified postmodernists are distinguished by their absolute certainty that “rigorous knowledge production is just a product of white, male, and Western culture and thus no better than the Theoretically interpreted lived experiences of members of marginalized groups, which must be constantly elevated and foregrounded.”. [7] Applebaum, Barbara (2010). I also understand that not everyone can read an entire book at a moment's notice. What happens next, they tell us, marks the beginning of reified postmodernism. 4: 876-92. p. 882. I was expecting the book to be an uncharitable diatribe. ), blah blah blah. A cynic may have a general lack of faith or hope in the human species or people motivated by ambition, desire, greed, gratification, materialism, goals, and opinions that a cynic perceives as vain, unobtainable, or ultimately meaningless and therefore deserving of ridicule or admonishment. 10-12 minutes. Read "Cynical Theories How Activist Scholarship Made Everything about Race, Gender, and Identity—and Why This Harms Everybody" by Helen Pluckrose available from Rakuten Kobo. In the academic discourse, they are unserious statements positioned between bad imitation of scientific theory and political pathology. It avoids the pitfalls of texts caught up in ‘culture war’ subjects; it intentionally avoids screeds of left- and right-wing punditry and the reader is likely to come away feeling that it has been academic and fair towards its opponents. Do Pluckrose and Lindsay really believe our universities are under siege by a brigade of illiberal, reified postmodernist professors-turned-insurgents? I would argue that humanities academics should be ethically required to self-examine and declare biases that may influence a paper and also state potential disconfirmation studies. The more serious misrepresentation occurs when Pluckrose and Lindsay describe the notion of “hermeneutical privacy”—which they mistakenly attribute to Medina, although the term was coined by Fricker—as the right of marginalized groups “to be completely incomprehensible.” Nothing Medina says about this concept suggests anything like such an interpretation. Your partial “takedown” addresses none of these concerns. Your confirmation bias is untethered to a realistic self-appraisal of critical thinking. I have attempted to condense the book into its most salient points keeping it … Summary: Authored by Jonathan Church via Quillette.com, A review of Cynical Theories: How Activist Scholarship Made Everything about Race, Gender, and Identity―and Why This Harms Everybody, by Helen Pluckrose and James Lindsay, Pitchstone Publishing (August 25th, 2020), 352 pages. Ch. "Cynical Theories is a brilliant book, offering an incisive and much needed critique of the cult of social justice. The book was listed on the bestsellers lists of Publishers Weekly,[1] USA Today,[2] and Calgary Herald.[3]. In Bailey’s example, she presents Claudia Card’s claim that “rape is a terrorist institution” and distinguishes two critical reactions from her students: A) “The threat of rape and the threat of terrorism are completely different,” and B) “Men are victims too, according to a recent statistic.” She acknowledges that A is productive in its critique, as it is actually engaging Card’s claim, whereas B is a red herring that offers nothing of value to the discussion at hand and attempts to derail the conversation. [2] Pluckrose and Lindsay, however, have their own interpretation of Dotson, as they expound her conception of epistemic violence as “having one’s cultural knowledge repressed by that of a dominant culture” due to “pernicious ignorance on the part of hearers who refuse to understand.” While this would certainly qualify as a form of Dotsonian epistemic violence, it is not the definition Dotson gives and repeats several times throughout the paper. ISBN-13: 9781800750043, 978-1800750043. Both authors of the book take the wrong approach by basing their critiques on philosophers and philosophy, and the author is right that they have not teased out the nuances of those texts. He led the "grievance studies affair" probe and his forthcoming book with Helen Pluckrose, Cynical Theories, looks at the evolution of postmodern thought in scholarship and activism. Cynical Theories contrasts the academic approaches of liberalism and postmodernism, then explains how applied postmodernism (which focuses on ought rather than is) has displaced other approaches to activism and scholarship. They appear absolutely convinced that there are several humanities fields with a Theory infestation, and that all Theorists think the “master’s tools” of logic, science, and reason are only accessible to white, Western men, and thus ought to be destroyed. What began in 1960’s as a radically new conception of the world known as postmodern theory headed by French philosophers Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and Jean-Francois Lyotard has morphed into an activist worldview under the rubric known as Critical Theory in its many forms. Beauty. German philosopher Peter Sloterdijk's term for what he calls enlightened false consciousness. Dear Jonathan, Let me begin by thanking you for agreeing to discuss this topic with me. The book is not the hatchet job that this review makes it out to be. “How is this Paper Philosophy?” Comparative Philosophy, 3 (1):3-29. p. 6. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. That’s just the Philosophy Department. "Cynical Theories is a brilliant book, offering an incisive and much needed critique of the cult of social justice. Bailey defines “privilege-preserving epistemic pushback” as “a variety of willful ignorance that dominant groups habitually deploy during conversations that are trying to make social injustices visible.”[9] According to Pluckrose and Lindsay, “Bailey argues that anyone who disagrees with Social Justice scholarship is insincere and simply trying to preserve unjust power structures” and she “assumes that criticisms of Social Justice scholarship are simply attempts to deliberately ignore The Truth According to Social Justice.” At this point it should hardly come as a surprise that these accusations are unfounded, as is evident from taking a closer look at what Bailey actually says: that “we need to be clear about the differences between critical thinking, healthy skepticism, and privilege-preserving epistemic pushback.”[10]. Perhaps it is quite nuanced, but it’s possible to present a nuanced argument on the basis of ignorance. “Epistemic Responsibility,” in The Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Injustice, ed. Publisher's Summary. Out of ~48 faculty listed, ~11 specifically mention either/or Critical “ “ Theory, Feminist Philosophy/Implicit Bias/Foucault/Marx as study emphases. If Lindsay and Pluckrose were actually concerned with a true turn toward radical leftism, they would understand this and expand beyond different “thought” as the answer to this. But I say this quite confidently: Cynical Theories suffers from the exact same problems Pluckrose and Lindsay diagnose in Social Justice scholarship—namely, misplaced cynicism combined with unwarranted confidence in such cynical interpretations. They introduce his concept of “hermeneutical death,” which they define as “a failure to be understood so profound as to destroy the person’s sense of self.” This is not exactly right, as Medina usually talks about hermeneutical death in terms of the loss of one’s voice rather than the loss of one’s sense of self. Because I can’t access their private mental states, my best guess is not much more than a speculative inference to the best explanation. Read an entire book at a moment 's notice the beginning of reified postmodernism and shoulders above rest! He is the author of five books and his essays have appeared in,. Matter they purport to explain sidetracks in Western ideology that led to both Salem and Weimar academic integrity a... Is said to provide a foundational lens through which to interpret and the... Take…Oh, i felt, were surely well-intentioned and did not really what! Foundational lens through which to interpret and understand the manifestation of a behavior ]! 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