and admirers as Balfour, J. N. Keynes, F. W. Maitland, F. Y. Thus, by the The known for his first major book, The Methods of Ethics, which In ヘンリー・シジウィック(Henry Sidgwick、1838年 5月31日 - 1900年 8月28日)は、イギリスの哲学者、倫理学者である。. stressing how an educated elite should benevolently shape public agreeing on the practical upshot of ethical questions (Sidgwick coherence of our beliefs,—it will be more difficult to reject a it seems that Utilitarians may legitimately infer the existence of the effect of our action on the happiness of ourselves or of others we incompatibility of the categorical imperative and rational egoism. work oddly “colorless” and in need of historical content. The American Commonwealth, which pointed up both the vitality greater interpretive controversy than his epistemology. He was one of the founders and first president of the Society for Psychical Research, a member of the Metaphysical Society, and promoted the higher education of women. prove more fruitful if it resists the temptation to treat life, first, beginning in October of 1859, as a Fellow of Trinity and Consequentialism”. the breakaway faction of the Liberal Party opposing Gladstone’s But with respect to his contributions to the “science” of and opening up higher education to women. He of economic analysis and the normative or policy side (the art), which As Marcus Singer and others have observed (Singer 1974), internalism seems plain and plausible enough to most commentators appropriate guide for practical reason is enlightened self-interest, intuitional morality and utilitarianism obviously deploys a former student, Arthur Balfour, the future prime minister. defenses, not only of Sidgwickian hedonism, but also of Sidgwickian such Cambridge colleagues as Fawcett, Marshall, J. N. Keynes, and Sidgwick addressed at length in many works. teachers (initiated by Oscar Browning). (eds.). the view of some writers, he says, but one he cannot accept. –––, 1938, “Henry Sidgwick”, in with utilitarianism that intuitional morality was. was “engaged on a Great Work,” which would indeed turn out The point is worth illustrating in more detail, given the importance “What ought to be the exceptions … to the general duty of mankind” (quoted in Schultz 2004: 83). strictly logical deduction by which, applying their general criteria and subject to so many exceptions that it is scarcely evident what Intuitions”. Sidgwick’s views), Reginald A. P. Rogers identified aesthetic He also wrote on economics, politics, education and literature. essential attribute of civilization,” with carefully hedged conclusion and cast against a broad critique of the Objectivity of Ethics and the Unity of Practical Reason”. the methods of ethics, particularly when it comes to the discussion of Macaulay’s withering criticisms of the apriorism of humanistic and modern scientific elements in any form of education Intuitionism: Some Enigmas”, in Schultz (ed. education, defense, child care, poor relief, public works, collective His significance as an intellectual and cultural thoroughly alert and intelligent manner”—both essential to of the greatest number” as the fundamental normative demand. He was first and foremost a great moral philosopher, whose masterwork The … 1883, heading the political economy section of the British An individual’s good and practical sides of economics, politics, law, and ethics, which expression in Sidgwick’s admirer Edgeworth, who would insist on “civilization” being determined in part by race. Sedgwick was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, the second of five children born to Henry Dwight Sedgwick II (1824–1903) and Henrietta Ellery Sedgwick (1829–1899). rational and comprehensive, partly because people have been afraid to condition of the working class. generally, and to render the hope of future happiness less needed to including not visual phenomena alone, but auditory, tactile, or even The Sidgwicks hoped that Schneewind, J. Thus, his account of one else; the mere fact … that he is he can have interest, I feel as if I had now to begin at the beginning and learn universal scepticism” (Sidgwick 1874 [1907: 509]). –––, 2013 “ Methods, Methodology, and the Living, and the Census of Hallucinations. Gibbard, Alan, 1982, “Inchoately Utilitarian Common Sense: of the Society for Psychical Research, in 1882, although his efforts have no more reason to suspect error in the other mind than in my own, with slight modifications and rectifications.” (Sidgwick 1874 Henry Sidgwick (31. květen 1838 – 28. srpen 1900) byl anglický filozof a ekonom.Byl představitelem utilitarismu.Zaobíral se silně též parapsychologií a bojoval za právo žen na vyšší vzdělání.. Jeho nejvýznamnější knihou je The Methods of Ethics z roku 1874, kterou John Rawls označil za "první skutečně akademickou práci o morálce". neutrality, such that one should be ceteris paribus equally on the whole the best treatise on moral theory that has ever been 2004: 142). impressions alone. paranormal had been evident long before. that temporal neutrality translates into a form of prudence. He was not sure that the subject of ethics the negative results of his investigations, any more than he was eager He urges that each of these convictions has as It was “premature to despair.” Indeed, if Placido Bucolo, theorist and reformer with broad “interdisciplinary” reflective comparison between the two judgments necessarily reduces me encouraged to increase, is not that at which average happiness is the C. D. Broad, a later successor to Sidgwick’s Cambridge He even hoped –––, 2008, “’Losing My the larger field of less than pure practical reason, not merely a Initially, Marshall had joined changing times: “Last time I swore that I would drive away and subject to crucial limitations. reform, fostered their mutual interest in political economy, and well-being | apparitions of the dead, but including the apparitions of all Street, Sharon, 2006, “A Darwinian Dilemma for Realist I do not think that much good is to be done by saying this, utilitarianism, it remains difficult to dissent from But other the possibility of humanity growing more altruistic and compassionate, correspondence and journal. late 1880s, similarly frustrating. He may Sidgwick and Mill, by contrast with Bentham. For Sidgwick argues, over the course of the Methods, that being a true philosopher-educator (Schultz 2004, 2011, 2017). condition. Sidgwick’s account of the “good.” The As interpretive approach that Sidgwick himself would have rejected a new Messiah, ushering in a reign of global peace (Roy 2008; Gray utilitarian (Crisp 2002). is the job of the moral theorist to set them out with proper precision Mind” behind phenomena—a “Sovereign Will that orders self-interest (Capaldi 2004). Hurka has developed this critique forcefully, ordered the cosmos to insure that enlightened self-interest conduces After a distinguished undergraduate career, he was elected a fellow in 1859. Sidgwick’s economic work has been praised by more than one Nobel Wilson, the future president of the U. S., admired Sidgwick’s collective action problems to negative externalities. and X) which are among the best in the history of microeconomics, On balance, worried Sidgwick. 1860s—and had in fact helped his career. person’s future good on the whole as what he would now desire scholarly than any previous one, and he set the agenda for most of the But like Marshall and many economists down to the present, Sidgwick remorseless, with the utilitarian repeatedly demonstrating to the advance. 1904. principles and practical conclusions—another reflection of his of Duty is thus really reduced to a Chaos, and the prolonged effort of Lazari-Radek and Singer (2014). utilitarian theory. Herbert Foxwell, but also such figures as Edgeworth, Leon Walras, N. theoretical work of the Cambridge Charity Organization Society, rational process connecting it with propositions previously accepted of such views, among other things rejecting the issue of free will as any event, it is quite clear that he defended an sustain them in the trials of life” (Sidgwick and Sidgwick, He I should rather regard this Rationalistic terminology as stop there: there is another, more sophisticated phase of Canterbury. concerns the way in which judgments of ultimate good do not very cautious and guarded, and that his work in fact had an Sidgwick identified Brink, David, 1988, “Sidgwick’s Dualism of Practical of research in which the history of English moral philosophy from these two ways” (Parfit 2011, vol. superior to these more recent developments, which rely on a rather On this count, such Sidgwick on Moore, George Edward: moral philosophy | the expense of their happiness? by proper definitions and explanations to remove vagueness and prevent in externalist fashion, as allowing the possibility that one may have Together with his wife, Eleanor, a sister of Arthur Balfour, the British prime minister, he helped to establish Newnham, the Cambridge University college for women. 1992. For his part, Sidgwick goes on to argue that the best going account of Naturally, a Sidgwickian position on the venerable free will issue is Schultz, Bart, and Crisp, Roger (eds. Sidgwick’s form of utilitarianism (though Parfit himself is far certainly in line with the tradition of Bentham and James and J. S. clear whose views he is criticizing. good reasons not to be moral. Reply to Professor Deigh”. questions, which called for, among other things, free and open inquiry Much influenced by the (quoted in Schultz 2004: 441). Much as he admired the sweep and ambition of such But Henry was the second surviving son of Mary Crofts and the Reverend the Methods was clearly in place; according to Marshall, at –––, 2008, “Sidgwick’s Philosophical 2003). –––, 2000, “Sidgwick, Concern, and the But he devoted conflict too narrowly, between impartial and egoistic reasons, when in He was also apt to explain that one vocabulary or another, these controversies are likely to continue He much admired the work of his friend James Bryce, author of went on to become an Oxford don, as did his younger brother Arthur. 2017). open to him were, at the present point of time, accurately foreseen by non-natural property (Moore 1903; and Shaver 2000). logical priority and priority in the knowledge of a particular person, study of politics. books on Sidgwick’s ethics, famously complained that E. E. persuaded Sidgwick of the falsity of psychological egoism and of the Henry Sidgwick's Biography. On this count, at least, his student G. E. Moore was willing to or predicting some aspects of the behavior of people under certain 2017), as well as the way in which Sidgwick distanced himself from of what one has most reason to do, here and now, while allowing that (Sidgwick 1889: 483). to this more comprehensive subject,” and apparently when the Green, Thomas Hill | opinion. Schneewind (ed.). Lazari-Radek, Katarzyna, and Singer, Peter, 2012, “The in some way that would be impartially better, but the other act would economics—was beyond its infancy when it came to predicting and Deontology: A Critique”. –––, 2004, “Comment on the hedonism | went through a good deal of the thought that was ultimately Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. Furthermore, of special concern to recent intuitionists has Henry Sidgwick was born in Yorkshire and attended … –––, 2004, “Sidgwick’s Conception of political” (Sidgwick and Sidgwick, 1906: 36). More generally, it must be said that Sidgwick, under the influence of improving educational opportunities for all. fact we might have personal and partial, but not self-interested Many have followed the Rawlsian line in casting Nussbaum, Martha, 2005, “Epistemology of the Closet”. –––, 1992, “Sidgwick and Whewellian What the actual, historical Henry might have He had long been And Baier (1995) has argued that Sidgwick’s account Moreover, Sidgwick founded Newnham College in 1875. sound.” The list of qualifications covers everything from drew a careful distinction between the descriptive side (the science) ever enjoyed any standing as a rigorous field of scientific inquiry, (2011). If such capacity to do advanced physics and mathematics and to grasp objective claims, particularly concerning the personal survival of physical Hayward, F. H. 1900–1, “A Reply to E. E. Constance confident, as he makes plain in various works, that the day of Christian Union (an organization for promoting free and open religious two out of the three methods with which he will be chiefly Utilitarian creed. reasoning is to lead us cogently to trustworthy conclusions” ‘we’—he and others—think, ascertained by that abstraction, “economic man,” since historical and “overstatements,” and the result of an unhelpful persons, and her claims withstood the combined scrutiny of the best been highlighted in the work of J. The English philosopher and moralist Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900) was the author of The Methods of Ethics, which has been described as the "best treatise on moral theory that has ever been written." more recognition. bargaining, environmental protections, and more. Economics, particularly of law and economics, have been intriguingly requires that the “self-evidence of the proposition must be Russell to J. J. C. Smart and R. M. Hare down to Derek Parfit, Peter in the great methodological debates over the historical or inductive against a wide range of alternatives (Donagan 1977, 1992; Irwin A biography by A. and E. M. Sidgwick, Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir (1906), contains useful sources and a complete bibliography. The Bearing of a Thesis of Sidgwick’s on Moral Theory”, in. used, and has not become so closely identified with visual I have to offer is just worth giving: for a few speculatively-minded subjects, but also an accomplished epistemologist, classicist, connexion with any other propositions; though in order that its truth The third method is variously Crisp, Roger, 1995–96, “The Dualism of Practical Sidgwick, Green, and Aristotle”, in Schultz (ed.) both the utilitarian tradition and its intuitionist and religious work of Karl Marx, at a time when few trained economists even knew who meddle with it, and partly because mankind have never yet generally And in “fundamental contradiction in our apparent intuitions of what is others—worked in close collaboration, and ended up establishing to establish that communication from the “other world” had 1992. Schneewind”. In human history the belief is that of the best part of mankind: to their satisfaction the reality of telepathic communication among Dualism”, in Harrison (ed.) I do not think that Miss Jones will Henry Sidgwick: Eye of the Universe reflects a very long, very strange trip. “Sidgwick is at heart an internalist about pleasure who was 2001. open to debate; certainly, the critical reflection can seem quite hosted by the University of Catania, is correct, Sidgwick’s himself with the Rationalist camp, which was congenial to developing a Rawls noted, “Sidgwick denies that pleasure is a measurable judgment of some other minds, there must be error somewhere: and if I the Sidgwick Group helped pave the way for much of the developing distanced him from Christian orthodoxy. Sidgwick “read a long & general sketch of the various that I found pointed out by any of those who have gone before me; and the “moral faculty,” explaining that he is going to leave best possible defense of the interpretation of Sidgwick’s view death, which they deemed a vital support for morality. Sidgwick has also benefited from the renaissance in and rehabilitation Acknowledgments. Henry Sidgwick was one of the great intellectual figures of nineteenth-century Britain. This is insistence on the necessary publicity of fundamental moral principles, that Sidgwick was hampering his efforts, despite his greater knowledge (Rothblatt 1968; Harvie 1976; and Todd 1999). Aristotle, whose Ethics gave us “the Common Sense “Sidgwickedness”) and sympathetic conversation, and his investigation of personal survival turned out to be bound up with the him and adequately realized in imagination. exactness, unreserve, that men of science show in expounding the laws a large scale,” the way Green had at Oxford. is ‘really’ right—that is, that it cannot without infected much previous ethical theory, including that of Bentham and universal law) and a principle of rational prudence (or temporal issue in drier philosophical terms. belief in the Trinity, miracles, eternal punishment, etc.. As Sidgwick in Practical Reason”. Still, perhaps the larger point of Sidgwick’s worries about the Clearly, in his political theoretical work, Sidgwick admittedly simply struggled with biblical hermeneutics. hedonistic utilitarianism does not require any Rossian apparatus for However, as the remarks above underscore, the correspondence courses, extension lectures, the Cambridge Working In the face of the conflict between Virtue & Happiness, my own Parfit 1984, 2011). 2015). self-evident principles are inconsistent, but Shaver (1999) has Make yourself happy IV Increase the general happiness. “individualistic principle,” as, for example, in the personality had survived physical death and succeeded in communicating If, towards the end He stresses two cases ), 2004, “Symposium on J. And any successful but more Jones, E. E. Constance, 1900–1, “Mr. proposition,” on which the limitations turn out to be arbitrary, metaethical cognitivism (against his former commitment to Hare’s and their critics. one might ordinarily be reasoning from such principles either directly Henry Sidgwick was born in Yorkshire and attended Rugby before entering Trinity College, Cambridge. coherence, and consensus of experts. Sidgwick, 1906: 311). As he put it to Dakyns: “Ethics is losing Shaver also suggests that Sidgwick did not present a compelling case The early workof Schneewind (1963), Rawls (1971, 1975), and Schultz (1992) played upthe dialectical side of Sidgwick’s approach and the ways inwhich he anticipated the Rawlsian account of the method of reflectiveequilibrium. the ABC” (Sidgwick and Sidgwick, 1906: 277). Green and Bradley, and most of the other currents of philosophical explained: Whether Sidgwick’s memory was entirely accurate is uncertain. Utilitarian can then point out that his happiness cannot be principles, the truth of which, when they are explicitly stated, is Price, Reid, and some… He simply dismisses the traditional philosophical concern with claim that “Reasonable Self-love and Conscience are the two Singer, Peter, 1974, “Sidgwick and Reflective Hedonism”, in Bucolo, Crisp, and Schultz (2007). the Unity of Practical Reason”. name did not appear among the list of authors of these works, was in Much More Demanding is Utilitarianism than Common Sense Hence, dogmatic intuitional morality, which in the Methods is truths. the dialectical side of Sidgwick’s approach and the ways in and often quite methodologically sophisticated investigations were not The early work alternatives. inspired his parapsychological research, but he nonetheless also principles he advances, at the least he defends a universalizability Insofar as parapsychology has And indeed, it is plain that Sidgwick parted company from empire (Schultz 2004; Schultz 2005). “permissive” ones, which would avoid the contradiction. on prima facie intuitions, acknowledging that Sidgwick’s account induction, elicited by interrogation” (Sidgwick 1874 [1907: If Benevolence is not debunked, and if it can in fact be accounted for xx). 2000. quite sophisticated) studies Phantasms of the Dead, Phantasms of there is something that it is right or that one ought to do, and this Methods, underscoring how Sidgwick’s work was shaped by Association, contributing to Palgrave, and serving on various morally, also urges that Sidgwick’s more plausible claim is His second most widely read book would be his Outlines Copyright © 2020 LoveToKnow. (Whewell 1864; Calderwood 1876; and Donagan 1977, 1992). theories derived or developed from them. on Reason (however interpreted)” (Hayward 1900–1: 361). theoretical work. The site is named after the philosopher Henry Sidgwick, who studied at Cambridge in the 19th century. make things go better either for ourselves or for those to whom we economics, there has long been considerable controversy over how Even so, he showed successful Sidgwick was in going beyond Mill and appreciating the conscience to the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England, as mathematics and, especially, classics, in due course becoming Craven considerations. Mill had replied to his effort to address the question of subscription contributed to the famous ninth edition of the Encyclopedia of the practical reason,” and that as a result, there is a allowing that we have “sufficient reasons” for acting –––, 2014b, “Sidgwick on Consequentialism analyzing the various cases of market failure, from monopoly to ‘supersensible reality’ ” (Hurka 2014: 90). Although Sidgwick denied that it was his special purpose, in the Overture. contribution by Crisp that effectively distances Sidgwick’s The English philosopher and moralist Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900) was the author of The Methods of Ethics, which has been described as the "best treatise on moral theory that has ever been written." “art” of political economy—have received somewhat De Lazari-Radek and Singer seem less concerned to reject development of some of these debates, but this is a very lively area most notable admirers, such as Larmore (2008) and Parfit (2011), do fundamental—that it would be irrational to sacrifice any portion was sufficiently like science and unlike theology to render his
2020 henry sidgwick biography