In Senegal it was named 'the Brazilian flu', and in Brazil 'the German flu', while in Poland it was known as 'the Bolshevik disease'. The Spanish Flu subsequently became front page news in 1918 – thus leading to the assumption that this was an illness which originated from Spain. Since nations undergoing a media blackout could only read in-depth accounts from Spanish news sources, they naturally assumed that the country was the pandemic’s ground zero. A statement from the Court insisted that his illness was “entirely benign” but that fact that it was necessary to comment on his health drew attention to it instead. In Spain, the inflation rate was the highest (20.1%) it had been since the beginning of the 20th century [21], and there was an increasing incidence of social class conflicts, inclu… This gave rise to the name "Spanish" flu. [24][25][26], The pandemic is conventionally marked as having begun on 4 March 1918 with the recording of the case of Albert Gitchell, an army cook at Camp Funston in Kansas, United States, despite there likely having been cases before him. [62], The basic reproduction number of the virus was between 2 and 3. [194], A 2006 study in the Journal of Political Economy found that "cohorts in utero during the pandemic displayed reduced educational attainment, increased rates of physical disability, lower income, lower socioeconomic status, and higher transfer payments received compared with other birth cohorts. [42] From Freetown, the pandemic continued to spread through West Africa along the coast, rivers, and the colonial railways, and from railheads to more remote communities, while South Africa received it in September on ships bringing back members of the South African Native Labour Corps returning from France. [180] The duration of the pandemic and the war could have also played a role. (2013) used a simple epidemic model incorporating three factors to infer the cause of the three waves of the 1918 influenza pandemic. [20], Alternative names were also used at the time of the pandemic. [73], One of the few regions of the world seemingly less affected by the Spanish flu pandemic was China, where several studies have documented a comparatively mild flu season in 1918. Alfonso XIII, the King of Spain, ruled a socially divided country with most of its close to 20,000,000 citizens impoverished because of the lack of trade and supplies that resulted from World War I. Consequently, when it was reported in May 1918 that King Alfonso XIII was ill in Madrid, most people dismissed the Spanish flu as a joke. [201], Additionally, the outbreak coincided with the deaths and media focus on the First World War. Australia also managed to avoid the first two waves with a quarantine. [155] Tafari Makonnen (the future Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia) was one of the first Ethiopians who contracted influenza but survived. [79][76][75], A report published in 2016 in the Journal of the Chinese Medical Association found no evidence that the 1918 virus was imported to Europe via Chinese and Southeast Asian soldiers and workers and instead found evidence of its circulation in Europe before the pandemic. [115] Nevertheless, actions were taken. [164] The country was going through the Persian famine of 1917–1919 concurrently. Spain remained neutral during World War I. [241], One of the few things known for certain about influenza in 1918 and for some years after was that it was, except in the laboratory, exclusively a disease of human beings. Similar to the name of Spanish flu, many of these also alluded to the purported origins of the disease. [118], A later study found that measures such as banning mass gatherings and requiring the wearing of face masks could cut the death rate up to 50 percent, but this was dependent on them being imposed early in the outbreak and not being lifted prematurely. [2] Estimates as to how many infected people died vary greatly, but the flu is regardless considered to be one of the deadliest pandemics in history. From New Zealand, the flu reached Tonga (killing 8% of the population), Nauru (16%), and Fiji (5%, 9,000 people). Home of the Daily and Sunday Express. 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[174] However, some contemporary newspaper and post office reports, as well as reports from missionary doctors, suggest that the flu did penetrate the Chinese interior and that influenza was severe in at least some locations in the countryside of China. [123] The newspapers of the time were also generally paternalistic and worried about mass panic. ", Phillips, Howard. [135] The decade between 1911 and 1921 was the only census period in which India's population fell, mostly due to devastation of the Spanish flu pandemic. He was the posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. [198], Despite the high morbidity and mortality rates that resulted from the epidemic, the Spanish flu began to fade from public awareness over the decades until the arrival of news about bird flu and other pandemics in the 1990s and 2000s. [69], In 1993, Claude Hannoun, the leading expert on the Spanish flu at the Pasteur Institute, asserted the precursor virus was likely to have come from China and then mutated in the United States near Boston and from there spread to Brest, France, Europe's battlefields, the rest of Europe, and the rest of the world, with Allied soldiers and sailors as the main disseminators. [37] The Netherlands reported 40,000+ deaths from influenza and acute respiratory disease, Bombay reported ~15,000 deaths in a population of 1.1 million. [179] For example, the British authorities at Hong Kong and Canton reported a mortality rate from influenza at a rate of 0.25% and 0.32%, much lower than the reported mortality rate of other cities in Asia, such as Calcutta or Bombay, where influenza was much more devastating. [98] The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae was instead mistakenly thought to be the cause, as it was big enough to be seen and was present in many, though not all, patients. Undersøkelser over influenzaens optræden specielt i Bergen 1918–1922. [202] Another explanation involves the age group affected by the disease. Coronavirus has been tightening its grip across the globe in the last few months. [80] The close quarters and massive troop movements of World War I hastened the pandemic, and probably both increased transmission and augmented mutation. [46] The celebrations of the Armistice of 11 November 1918 also caused outbreaks in Lima and Nairobi, but by December the wave was mostly over. King Alfonso XIII of Spain became very ill with Spanish Flu in late May 1918. [74][75][76] (Although this is disputed due to lack of data during the Warlord Period, see Around the globe.) [138], Kenneth Kahn at Oxford University Computing Services writes that "Many researchers have suggested that the conditions of the war significantly aided the spread of the disease. In Senegal it was named 'the Brazilian flu', and in Brazil … This pneumonia was itself caused by common upper respiratory-tract bacteria, which were able to get into the lungs via the damaged bronchial tubes of the victims. Bg. [232] This ancestor virus diverged about 1913–1915 into two clades (or biological groups), which gave rise to the classical swine and human H1N1 influenza lineages. [128][129] An early estimate from 1927 put global mortality at 21.6 million. Writing for Royal Central last week, commentator Oskar Aanmoen explained: “The hospital camp in Étaples in France was identified by researchers as being at the centre of the Spanish Flu outbreak.”. [33], The first wave of the flu lasted from the first quarter of 1918 and was relatively mild. The standard narrative maintains that the first cases broke out in a military camp in Kansas where few noticed the signs of the pandemic to come amid the ongoing war. Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941), also known as El Africano or the African, was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. [18][19] Newspapers were therefore free to report the epidemic's effects, such as the grave illness of King Alfonso XIII, and these widely-spread stories created a false impression of Spain as especially hard hit. [59] Peru experienced a late wave in early 1920, and Japan had one from late 1919 to 1920, with the last cases in March. While King Alfonso XIII maintained the policy of strict neutrality held by the Spanish government, the Queen Mother, Maria Christina of Austria, was pro-German and Queen Ena (Victoria Eugenie, granddaughter of Queen Victoria and cousin of George V) was pro-British. The second and most deadly wave occurred in October 1918 and resulted in millions of deaths. As the pandemic reached epic proportions in the fall of 1918, it became commonly known as the “ Spanish Flu ” or the “Spanish Lady” in the United … This has led to speculation that the Spanish flu pandemic originated in China,[76][75][77][78] as the lower rates of flu mortality may be explained by the Chinese population's previously acquired immunity to the flu virus. [150] Entire Inuit and Alaskan Native village communities died in Alaska. [89][130] However, a 2018 reassessment in the American Journal of Epidemiology estimated the total to be about 17 million,[4] though this has been contested. Papers were free to report the epidemic’s effects in neutral Spain (such as the grave illness of King Alfonso XIII). [41] From there it spread around southern Africa and beyond the Zambezi, reaching Ethiopia in November. Modern transportation systems made it easier for soldiers, sailors, and civilian travelers to spread the disease. Whatever its origin, it was transported to Europe by American troops. A final wave of the flu occurred in February 1919, and after that, the flu disappeared. READ MORE: Meghan Markle’s ‘coronavirus tips’ to avoid infection exposed. King Alfonso XIII was the king of Spain during the outbreak of the 'Spanish' flu. [121], Due to World War I, many countries engaged in wartime censorship, and suppressed reporting of the pandemic. The hospital treated thousands of victims of poison gas attacks, and other casualties of war, and 100,000 soldiers passed through the camp every day. [184], There were also geographic patterns to the disease's fatality. The disease, however, did not originate in Spain. Although the deadly infection started in Wuhan, China, there has been a great deal of public backlash against calling the illness ‘the Chinese Virus’ over fears of increasing xenophobia. Some parts of Asia had 30 times higher death rates than some parts of Europe, and generally, Africa and Asia had higher rates, while Europe, North America, and Asia had lower ones. [161], Several Pacific island territories were hit particularly hard. The Spanish flu came in three waves as is illustrated in Figure 1. Alfonso was born in Madrid, posthumously born son of Alfonso XII of Spain, and became King of Spain upon his birth. Immediately, I am reminded of the Flu Epidemic of 1918, which I spent much of last year researching and incorporating as a major plot twist in … Continued. As the article explained, “this allowed the disease to spread almost freely in Europe and the US in the early stage. Alfonso was monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII… [9] Another theory holds that the 1918 virus mutated extremely rapidly to a less lethal strain. And the shocking news of the epidemic reached other European nations. Mar 28, 2020 - Explore Santa Rouco's board "King Alfonso XII of Spain" on Pinterest. [116] Wearing face masks became common in some places, such as Japan, though there were debates over their efficacy. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/alfonso-xiii-of-spain-8045.php Still, to prevent the spread of the outbreak the Royal Family is said to be taking measures to protect themselves. The general population was familiar with patterns of pandemic disease in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: typhoid, yellow fever, diphtheria and cholera all occurred near the same time. They examined the factors that underlie variability in temporal patterns and their correlation to patterns of mortality and morbidity. Despite its name, historical and epidemiological data cannot identify the geographic origin of the Spanish flu. Not pandemic, but included for comparison purposes. Our estimate, based on data discussed later on flu-related death rates for 48 countries, is that this pandemic killed around 40 million people worldwide, corresponding to 2.1 percent of the world’s population at the time. News of the virus first appeared in Madrid in late-May 1918, and coverage only increased after the Spanish King Alfonso XIII came down with a bad case a week later. [134] Another estimate gives at least 12 million dead. It also was home to a piggery, and poultry was regularly brought in from surrounding villages to feed the camp. [75][76][79][175] However, some reports from its interior suggest that mortality rates from influenza were perhaps higher in at least a few locations in China in 1918. [9] One group of researchers recovered the virus from the bodies of frozen victims and transfected animals with it. The war may also have reduced people's resistance to the virus. The 1918 influenza pandemic and human capital development", https://www.marketwatch.com/story/another-warning-from-1918-spanish-flu-for-covid-19-survival-does-not-mean-that-individuals-fully-recovered-2020-08-18, "Estimates of the reproduction number for seasonal, pandemic, and zoonotic influenza: a systematic review of the literature", "Transmissibility and geographic spread of the 1889 influenza pandemic", "1918 Influenza: the mother of all pandemics", "Report of the Review Committee on the Functioning of the International Health Regulations (2005) in relation to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009", "Why the coronavirus outbreak isn't likely to be a repeat of the 1918 Spanish flu", "Mortality from pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza in England: public health surveillance study", "First Global Estimates of 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Mortality Released by CDC-Led Collaboration", "The age-specific cumulative incidence of infection with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 was similar in various countries prior to vaccination", "Epidemiological characteristics of 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza based on paired sera from a longitudinal community cohort study", "Case fatality risk of influenza A (H1N1pdm09): a systematic review", "Seasonal Incidence of Symptomatic Influenza in the United States", "H1N1 fatality rates comparable to seasonal flu", "Open Collections Program: Contagion, Spanish Influenza in North America, 1918–1919", "Researchers reconstruct 1918 pandemic influenza virus; effort designed to advance preparedness", "Closing In On a Killer: Scientists Unlock Clues to the Spanish Influenz Virus", "Scientists Uncover Clues To Flu Epidemic of 1918", "Research on monkeys finds resurrected 1918 flu killed by turning the body against itself", "A shot-in-the-dark e-mail leads to a century-old family treasure – and hope of cracking a deadly flu's secret", "Purulent bronchitis: A study of cases occurring amongst the British troops at a base in France", "Compromised constitutions: the Iranian experience with the 1918 influenza pandemic", "Using non-homogeneous models of nucleotide substitution to identify host shift events: application to the origin of the 1918 'Spanish' influenza pandemic virus", "Researchers unlock secrets of 1918 flu pandemic", "Swine flu shot protects against 1918 flu: study", "Inferring the causes of the three waves of the 1918 influenza pandemic in England and Wales", "Modeling a Modern Day Spanish Flu Pandemic", "Questioning the salicylates and influenza pandemic mortality hypothesis in 1918-1919", "The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919: Perspectives from the Iberian Peninsula and the Americas", "Salicylates and pandemic influenza mortality, 1918-1919 pharmacology, pathology, and historic evidence", "Integrating historical, clinical and molecular genetic data in order to explain the origin and virulence of the 1918 Spanish influenza virus", "Children and encephalitis lethargica: a historical review", "Out in the Cold and Back: New-Found Interest in the Great Flu", "What the 1918 Flu Pandemic Can Teach Today's Insurers", "The 1918 influenza epidemic's effects on sex differentials in mortality in the United States", "The re-appearing shadow of 1918: trends in the historiography of the 1918–19 influenza pandemic", "Existing antivirals are effective against influenza viruses with genes from the 1918 pandemic virus", We Heard the Bells: The Influenza of 1918, Presentation by Nancy Bristow on the Influenza Pandemic and World War I, November 1, 2019, The American Influenza Epidemic of 1918–1919: A Digital Encyclopedia, Spanish Flu: The History Channel WebSite (26 March 2020), Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spanish_flu&oldid=991519944, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Chandra, Siddharth, Julia Christensen, and Shimon Likhtman. 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However, John Barry stated in his 2004 book The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague In History that researchers have found no evidence to support this position. Then, the king of Spain — Alfonso XIII — and several other members of his government contracted the flu. [100] In Chile, the view of the country's elite was that the nation was in severe decline, and therefore the assumption of doctors was that the disease was typhus caused by poor hygiene, and not an infectious one, causing a mismanaged response which did not ban mass gatherings. When people read the obituaries, they saw the war or postwar deaths and the deaths from the influenza side by side. [237], On 16 September 2008, the body of British politician and diplomat Sir Mark Sykes was exhumed to study the RNA of the flu virus in efforts to understand the genetic structure of modern H5N1 bird flu. [156][157] Many of his subjects did not; estimates for fatalities in the capital city, Addis Ababa, range from 5,000 to 10,000, or higher. King Alfonso XIII of Spain became very ill with Spanish Flu in late May 1918. He found archival evidence that a respiratory illness that struck northern China (where the laborers came from) in November 1917 was identified a year later by Chinese health officials as identical to the Spanish flu. [190], Many businesses in the entertainment and service industries suffered losses in revenue, while the healthcare industry reported profit gains. Nursing staff, who were mainly women, celebrated the success of their patient care and did not associate the spread of the disease with their work. The Spanish flu of 1918 was the most severe influenza outbreak of the 20th century, ... News of the sickness first made headlines in Madrid in late-May 1918, and coverage only increased after the Spanish King Alfonso XIII came down with a lewd case a week later. Some survivors did not fully recover from physiological condition(s). The clincher was the announcement in early October that Spain’s King Alfonso XIII had come down with the flu, along with several members of his cabinet. And others have argued that the course of the war (and subsequent peace treaty) was influenced by the pandemic." (2011) used a mechanistic modeling approach to study the three waves of the 1918 influenza pandemic. [27] After the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918), Germany started releasing Russian prisoners of war, who then brought the disease to their country. [96] But it killed a much lower percentage of the world's population than the Black Death, which lasted for many more years. In other countries, this outbreak in Spain was reported in the news with no mention of what was happening locally, which made it seem unique to that country, and the name Spanish flu was born. 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