As we get older, we learn about each other’s foundational beliefs, moral compass, dedication to issues, commitment to family, social and political outlooks, and desire to help others. The reason why Aristotle brings into perspective the aspect of constitutionality is to shed light on the concept of friendship as it applies to governments. Aristotle turns to a discussion of friendship, which is itself a virtue, or … In this case, goodwill amounts to friendship only when the feeling is reciprocated (120). The first is friendship based on utility, where both people derive some benefit from each other. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Men tend to wish well those they love, not because of a feeling, but as a result of a certain state of character. That is why it is complete, and the other two are only called 'friendships' by their similarity to this case (1156b301157a3). Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? The main gist of Aristotle’s argument is on the relationship between friendship and justice (102). Aristotle describes how communities, which are a larger extension of friendship, can help a person live with virtue through the upholding of societal structure. Aristotle begins the work by positing that there exists some ultimate good toward which, in the final analysis, all human actions ultimately aim. In the first type, friendship based on utility, people associate for their mutual usefulness. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. The truest form of justice according to Aristotle is thought to be an enduring friendly quality (118). Everything is left in the hands of the two people who have become friends of convenience in order to transact business. So, friendship can not flourish in the Republic, and conversely, only the Republic can give rise to true friendship. Aristotle friendship essay We are constantly trying to broaden the circumference of our circle of friends. The demands of justice, therefore, appear to increase with the insensitivity of the level of friendship. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Injustice increases when it is exhibited towards people who are considered friends in the fuller sense. Millions of books are just a click away on BN.com and through our FREE NOOK reading apps. The only reason why such people communicate is for them to transact business. Friendship is not merely agreeing with somebody on something but coming together with those agreeing beliefs and determining a mutually advantageous course of action. SparkNotes is brought to you by Barnes & Noble. Book 8. Teachers & Schools. Some of Aristotle’s best-known works on ethics can be found in his book Nicomachean Ethics, which was published in approximately 340 BCE. When all the things that are demanded in friendship are found, true friendship is said to exist. For no one would choose to live without friends, but possessing all other good things. of Happiness) men seem to form their notions from the different modes of life, as we might naturally expect: the many and most low conceive it to be pleasure, and hence they are content with the life of sensual enjoyment.” #3: “It is plain then that the good or ill fortunes of their friends do affect the dead somewhat.” In any case, these two works cover more or less the same ground: they begin with a … Aristotle categorizes friendships into three categories: friendships of utility, friendships of pleasure, and friendships of the good (107). Aristotle's account of Friendship in the Nicomachean Ethics A. D. M. WALKER The Nicomachean Ethics, as is well known, distinguishes three types of friendship - the friendship of goodness, the friendship of pleasure, and the friendship of utility. Aristotle makes the argument that friends can be regarded as second selves. 9th May 2017 He asserts that if people stay friends, they do not have any need for justice, but if they maintain justice, they also need friendship in addition. In the latter case, these are friends without qualifications while others are accidental friends, for whom, the only thing that they share is the resemblance of needs. You can view samples of our professional work here. The best quotes from The Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle - organized by theme, including book location and character - with an explanation to help you understand! Although both monarchy and timocracy are a one-man rule systems, the main difference between them is that the tyrant looks at his own advantage while the king looks to the advantage of his subjects. However, when they are just, they require justice as well. Book 9 of the Nicomachean Ethics explores the nature of friendship in great detail. How are these three types of friendship … In loving friends, men indicate their love for what is good for themselves. Friendships of pleasure are based on delight in other people’s company alone. For older people, it is useful for ministering to their needs as well as supplementing the various activities that could be failing as a result of weakness. In Book 8, Aristotle says that without friends, nobody would choose life. He takes pains to point out that this friendliness must be balanced, however. In the same light, friendship is identified as necessary where the formal rules of justice require to be applied, for instance in the legal laws. Aristotle also carries the association debate even further, noting that friendships form the basis of humankind’s very existence. Aristotle’s account of friendship (φιλία) extends over nearly two books of the Nicomachean Ethics, granting friendship a central place in his account of an ethical life. The mutual love for certain choices springs from the state of character of the friends. In Aristotle’s view, in every form of friendship, there has to be some form of association. Anyone can share a belief with another person, but friends will be able to work together effectively to improve the world. For instance, it sounds more offensive to defraud a comrade than to defraud a fellow citizen. It is more terrible for one to kill one’s mother than to kill any other citizen. All work is written to order. The words Eudemian and Nicomachean were added later, perhaps because the former was edited by his friend, Eudemus, and the latter by his son, Nicomachus. In friendships or exchanges where each person receives a different benefit, it is important that both parties feel they are being justly treated. Aristotle completes the logical analysis by saying that in becoming a friend, a man ideally becomes good to his friends (129). The Nicomachean Ethics (/ ˌ n ɪ k oʊ ˈ m æ k i ə n /; Ancient Greek: Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια, Ēthika Nikomacheia) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.The work, which plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics, consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum. Aristotle supports this proposition by saying that this is the reason why most men love flattery; since the flatterer takes the position of inferiority in a friendship, or pretends to be such and to more be more loving than he is being loved. This paper shows that the arguments that Aristotle makes in support of this assertion is convincing. The colored dots and icons indicate which themes are associated with that appearance. 1. In this excerpt from his book, Aristotle defines three types of friendship. Even those people in possession of all the goods that they need in life, including high office, need friends. Aristotle addresses these questions on Friendship in Books 8 and 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle also assesses the position of friendship vis-à-vis that of justice by bringing into perspective the concept of constitution (119). Lovable objects are those that pleasant, good or useful. The timeline below shows where the term Friendship appears in Nicomachean Ethics. The legal type is one where the terms are fixed, while the unwritten one is the one where moral values are conventionally applied. However, Aristotle does notsay that we should aim at happiness, but ratherthat we do aim at happiness. Friendship will occupy a significant role in Nicomachean Ethics. This is because of the lack of anything to be shared between the ruler and the ruled. The Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle is a great book, evryone one should read it because Aristotle manages to think of individual happiness in connection with the happiness of the city. This is because it is difficult to trust anyone except a man who has been tested by oneself. According to Aristotle, there are three types of friendships: those based on utility, those based on pleasure or delight, and those grounded in virtue. Aristotle’s explanation of the applicability of both unwritten laws and legal laws is enlightening on the ways in which friendship takes the place of justice. Friendship of the good involves the enjoyment of each other’s characters. Marcus Aurelius - How to Think Clearly: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2eB5zqN01oo --- At age 17, Aristotle enrolled in the Platonic Academy. Selfishness isn't going to cut it in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Friendships are considered not only necessary, but also noble, since people always praise those who show love for their friends. This raises the genuine difficulty of telling who friends really are without their feelings being communicated. The friendship that exists between the king and all his subjects is dependent on the benefits conferred, and Aristotle likens it to the friendship of the father to his son, the only difference being the greatness of all the benefits conferred. In the least, friendship exists in its worst form, such that in a form of government such as tyranny, there is too little or no friendship at all. Book 8, Chapter 1. that friends are no threat at all to self-sufficiencyin his solution to the paradox of the happy man’s need for friends in NE 9.9 (and in 1.7 as commonly interpreted).7 A variety of strategies could be used either to alleviate or to ac-cept the tension in the Nicomachean Ethics between the apparently full Whatever is good for a man, though, becomes the object of his friendship. Particularly, he indicates that man has a tendency to form couples and households more readily than even cities. However, a clash emerges in this argument, especially in determining whether men love the good or what they consider good for them. Here, Aristotle describes the importance of friendship to decision-making. How are these three typesof friendship supposed to be related to one another? Friendship is a virtue or at least involves virtue. Similarly, it is impossible to guard prosperity without friends. Each of these constitutions may involve friendship just as much as it involves justice. VAT Registration No: 842417633. For Aristotle,this happiness is our highest goal. Aristotle makes the argument that friends can be regarded as second selves. Aristotle wrote two ethical treatises: the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics. *You can also browse our support articles here >. At this point in Aristotle’s discussion, there is a pronounced shift from a focus on the individual pursuit of virtue to the role of virtue in relationships and communities. At the same time, he seems to suggest that justice cannot take place in a vacuum – there has to be a friendly relationship of sorts between all the participants in the legal process within a given jurisdiction. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Reference this. Students. The same case applies to the duties of comrades and their fellow citizens. #2: “Now of the Chief Good (i.e. Our next business after this will be to discuss Friendship. People who drink beer together are said to be in this friendship. It is on this basis that he indicates that when men are friends, they need justice. True friendship is rather defined by a love for another person regardless of what can be received from them because of a mutual admiration for each other’s unchanging moral character, independent of situational factors. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! This is because, many people may have goodwill for those they have not necessarily judged to be useful or good. To be friends, then, there is a need for feelings to be mutually recognized as wishes of goodwill to each other. It is necessary to life, since no one would choose to live without friends even if he had all other material goods. Most people appear to like being loved instead of loving, mainly because of ambition. Through such illustrations, Aristotle provides a clear proof of the power of friendship over justice (138). Here, the impression made is that love is merely a feeling, and friendship a state of character. However, the few cultivated people, the virtuous, understand that happiness comes from friendship… Here, rather than the friendship of fellow citizens or political collaborators, Aristotle discusses the friendship of truly close friends. For instance, the friendship that exists between brothers and sisters is born out of a shared parentage and upbringing. A balanced friendliness with strangers need not entail bending over backward for others, merely that we treat them as we would a friend, without expecting the true underlying fondness we have for actual friends. No form of justice can be said to have taken place in such engagements, regardless of the outcome of the bargaining process. Aristotle says that just as virtuous behavior improves an individual, friends have the potential to generate improvements upon each other’s lives. Living from 384–322 BC, and having been a student in Plato’s Academy for nearly twenty years before founding his own philosophical school in Athens, the Lyceum, in 335 BC, Aristotle The same case applies to all other kinds of friendships that exist. This idea feeds into Aristotle’s emphasis on the importance of politics to human life—the meeting of multiple minds to deliberate on how to increase the happiness of themselves and their community. Aristotle addresses the topic of friendship in Book 8 and 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle says that just as virtuous behavior improves an individual, friends have the potential to generate improvements upon each other’s lives. Nicomachean Ethics is a philosophical inquiry into the nature of the good life for a human being. As long as these friends maintain their similar characters, their relationship endures because its main motive is care for each other. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. Aristotle ventures into what appears like a contradiction when he says that claims of justice tend to differ. Considering the three forms of friendships, it is true to say that bad men will always be friends for the sake of utility or pleasure, while good men will always be friends for their own sake, that is, for the virtue of their goodness. Friendship Justice and Judgment Community Wisdom and Knowledge Life, Consciousness and Existence Choice. For the young, friendships are a way of avoiding straying. This is friendship at its best, what in modern English may be referred to as true friendship. It also implies that when there is justice, friendship becomes a necessity, such that when the concept of justice is introduced into a scenario where friendship is at play, both elements tend to have an equal extension. Now here a common measure has been provided in the form of money, and therefore everything is referred to this and measured by this; It appears that where one applies, the other cannot apply. 1 For friendship is a virtue, 2 or involves virtue; and also it is one of the most indispensable requirements of life. For without friends no one would choose to live, though he had all other goods; even rich men and those in possession of Friendships of utility are those friendships that are formed with no regard to the other person. He identifies three kinds of constitutions: monarchy, aristocracy, and timocracy or what many people refer to as polity. A person who seems disagreeable about everything will never progress very far, but a person who behaves in an ingratiating way to everybody, who tries to please everyone and cause no hurt, will ultimately cause damage to him/herself and others too. To this extent, the tendency to form marriages arise from not just pleasure but also utility. Company Registration No: 4964706. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. The majority believe that things such as pleasure, wealth, and honor are considered happiness. Nicomachean Ethics, written by Aristotle, focuses on the good in life and how one can achieve it. He does not himself use either of these titles, although in the Politics (1295a36) he refers back to one of themprobably the Eudemian Ethicsas ta êthikahis writings about character. in the political form of friendship the shoemaker gets a return for his shoes in proportion to his worth, and the weaver and all other craftsmen do the same. Typically, quarrels may result in this friendship only. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. The necessary characteristics of the ultimate good are that it is complete, final, self-sufficient and continuous. The best method is to fix a price in advance, though some forms of benevolence cannot properly be repaid. Of these three, only complete friendship is the real thing. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! The word happiness in the Ethics isa translation of the Greek term eudaimonia, whichcarries connotations of success and fulfillment. Other people can help us act virtuously by improving our ability to deliberate or, as defined by Aristotle, to contemplate matters in which we can take action. Each of them, then, both love what is good for himself, while at the same time making an equal return through goodwill and pleasantness. They do not perceive the use of all such prosperity without an opportunity of beneficence, which can only be exercised in its most laudable form towards friends. Philosophy Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In Aristotle’s view, two types of justices are worth considering for purposes of assessing their applicability to friendships: unwritten and legal justice. Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle Written 350 B.C.E Translated by W. D. Ross. Here, Aristotle advocates for friendliness and civility even with people who are not our close friends. Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Most people aim at being loved since this is akin to being honored. Nicomachean Ethics Deliberation concerns what is usually [one way rather than another], where the outcome is unclear and the right way to act is undefined. Additionally, the arguments made here explain both the ethical and political importance of friendship for Aristotle. His arguments make the concept of friendship to predominate that of justice. Since happiness is an activity, friendship’s role in happiness must also be active. “One swallow does not make a summer, neither does one fine day; similarly one day or brief time of … The clash arises in that each man loves not just what is good, but that seems good for him. Aristotle addresses these questions on Friendship in Books 8 and 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics. However, he makes his argument clear by giving examples of duties of parents to children, as well as those of brothers to each other, which he says are never the same. In Aristotle’s view, there is thought to be a certain form of justice as well as friendship in every community. In his view, true friendship is not defined by what people need or want from each other because those things are likely to change with time. After what we have said, a discussion of friendship would naturally follow, since it is a virtue or implies virtue, and is besides most necessary with a view to living. For Aristotle, this makes no difference. This implies that there is a limit of friendship to which justice does not apply. According to Aristotle in Nicomachean Ethics, the three types of friendship are friendship for the sake of pleasure, friendship for the sake of utility, and perfect friendship. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980. And we enlist partners in deliberation on large issues when we distrust our own ability to discern [the right answer]. In the deviation-forms of constitution, justice hardly exists; the same case applies to friendship. For this reason, friends are formed on the basis of the good and pleasure that is produced, which has to be useful. Therefore, friendship does a lot of justice by making everyone feel honored. It is also thought to be a great thing to have many friends. This type of friendship is, by nature, self-regarding and selfishly motivated, though mutually satisfactory. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Even if justice was to exist in such a type of constitution, people would not appreciate it since the spirit of friendship is lacking. The second is friendship based on pleasure, where both people are drawn to the other’s wit, good looks, or other pleasant qualities. Start studying Three Types of Friendship - Nicomachean Ethics. This good toward which all human actions implicity or explicitly aim is happinessin Greek, \"eudaimonia,\" which can also be translated as blessedness or living well, and whi… The Nicomachean Ethics of Friendship based on goodness: This type of friendship emerges when both people see the good in each other. Incidentally, both the concepts of goodwill and pleasantness are found in the concepts of friendship and equality. Aristotle poses the question of whether goodwill in itself constitutes friendship. The different kinds of friendships may be cleared if attention was shifted to the object of love, in which case only the lovable objects can be loved. However, nothing prevents various evils arising, such that the assertion that ‘he would never wrong’ seems to be inaccurate. From the arguments that Aristotle makes, friendship and justice appear to be concerned with similar objects, and expressed between the same persons. As you read, takes notes on what differentiates … In other words, even where legal laws have been put in place for political reasons, friendship is needed in order for the ethical aspects of justice to be put into consideration. If people did not the terms that bind them in various forms of friendships, there would be no need for justice. Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics (Translated by Ross, David. Aristotle elaborates on his idea of friendship, noting that a key feature of companionship is collaboration. In terms of justice, the friendship of the good is enough proof against slander. It is also more offensive to deny one’s brother assistance than to refuse to help a stranger. The best constitution, according to Aristotle, is monarchy, while the worst is timocracy. Aristotle also indicates that friends are the only refuge when misfortunes and poverty strike (108). He also notes that unlike animals, man’s associations in the form of couples are not for reproduction purposes only, but for many other purposes in life. Aristotle's account of Friendship in the Nicomachean Ethics A. D. M. WALKER The Nicomachean Ethics, as is well known, distinguishesthree types of friendship-the friendship of goodness, the friendship of pleasure, and the friendship of utility. Contemplating Friendship in Aristotle’s Ethics Aristotle begins the Nicomachean Ethics by embracing the claim that all human activity aims at the good. On the basis of this argument, it is possible for one to draw a parallel between the principles of justice and the principles of friendship. Friendship depends on community, and brothers and comrades tend to have many things in common, including, in some cases, property. In efforts to explain why the truest friendship is the one that one of the good, Aristotle argues that the friendship that is without qualification pleasant or good seems to be desirable or lovable. Study for free with our range of university lectures! When a person is buying merchandise, has to meet the seller, but the relationship that is required is rather shallow. Aristotle details three types of friendships—of usefulness, of pleasure, and complete friendship. Looking for a flexible role? Although friendships of utility are always full of complaints, this does not necessarily mean that an injustice has been committed against the complainant; rather, it is normal for the process of bargaining and haggling to be characterized by tough talk and claims of unfair pricing. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. By living as part of a community and abiding by that community’s laws, a person receives a framework in which to practice living virtuously. Here, Aristotle describes the importance of friendship to decision-making. In this sense, friendship is said to be similar to the concept of equality. Nicomachean Ethics has been divided into the following sections: Book I [65k] Book II [50k] Book III [74k] Book IV [69k] Book V [74k] Book VI [55k] Book VII [78k] Book VIII [70k] Book IX [66k] Book X [71k] For Aristotle, friendships appear to be holding states together, and lawgivers are more careful about friendships than for justice. Since unanimity seems to be like friendship, they aim at this most of the time, and strive to expel faction as their worst enemy. His goal in the Ethics isnot to tell us that we ought to live happy, successful lives, butto tell us what this life consists of. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. In cases of dispute, the recipient of a … However, when these people no longer enjoy sharing the activity, the friendship may come to an end. Aristotle addresses the topic of friendship in Book 8 and 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics. At the core of this view of politics stands a sense of friendship. The best friendship is the one which is caused by love of the good; it has the qualities of the friendship caused by love of utility and the friendship caused by love of the pleasant and more. It sounds more offensive to defraud a fellow citizen a key feature of companionship is collaboration to select also! Completes the logical analysis by saying that in becoming a friend, a company registered in England Wales... Best method is to fix a price in advance, though some of. 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics, Written by Aristotle Written 350 B.C.E Translated by W. D..... 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