Symbols of the wild north, caribou are a sought after species for wildlife viewers in Alaska. The only forests found in these areas are boreal forests, also known as “taiga,” or “snow” forests. They are raised for their meat, hides and antlers and, to a lesser extent, for milk and transportation. The word deer was originally broader in meaning but became more specific over time. The Caribou Inuit are inland-dwelling Inuit in present-day Nunavut's Keewatin Region, Canada, now known as the Kivalliq Region. The barren-ground caribou (R. t. groenlandicus) is found in western Greenland, but the larger herds are in Alaska, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.[9]. "[58] The antlers typically have two separate groups of points, lower and upper. In their book entitled Mammal Species of the World, American zoologist Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn Reeder agree with Valerius Geist, specialist on large North American mammals, that this range actually includes several subspecies. [citation needed]. Students will research a reindeer’s appearance, habitat, behaviors, diet, predators, and adaptations. in the ultraviolet range), considerably below the human threshold of 400 nm. According to the Species at Risk Public Registry (SARA), woodland[64], "Caribou have large feet with four toes. In Europe, caribou are referred to as “reindeer”, but all caribou and reindeer throughout the world are … Banfield rejected this classification in 1961. [134]:142 To them caribou—vadzaih—is the cultural symbol and a keystone subsistence species of the Gwich'in, just as the buffalo is to the Plains Indians. A single owner may have hundreds, sometimes thousands of animals. About 6,000 reindeer and more than 1,000 reindeer herders were part of the operation. Tomson Highway, CM[155] is a Canadian and Cree playwright, novelist, and children's author, who was born in a remote area north of Brochet, Manitoba. For breeders, a single owner may own hundreds or even thousands of animals. Reindeer [was] particularly abundant in the Magdalenian deposits from the late part of the 4-Wurm just before the end of the Ice Age: at that time and at the early Mesolithic it was the game animal for many tribes. The reindeer has large feet with crescent-shaped, cloven hooves for walking in snow or swamps. Carl Linnaeus chose the name Rangifer for the reindeer genus, which Albertus Magnus used in his De animalibus, fol. It is an animal whose habitat is in the Arctic areas of both North America and Eurasia. The young protagonists of Caribou Song, like Tomson himself, followed the caribou herd with their families. After this however, nonbreeding females on average have a higher fat mass than the breeding females. [13] Environment Canada reported in 2011 that there were approximately 34 000 boreal woodland caribou in 51 ranges remaining in Canada. K’ughto’oodenool’o’ recounted a story told by an elder, who "worked on the steamboats during the gold rush days out on the Yukon." Lemmings are found only in the Northern Hemisphere. [2] According to IUCN, Rangifer tarandus as a species is not endangered because of its overall large population and its widespread range. [90] During the mating season, males battle for access to females. Wild reindeer are still hunted in Greenland and in North America. It must be very pleasant for Santa's reindeer in that land of ice, for throughout the short Arctic summer and long winter, Santa's reindeer rarely stray from their snowy home. Breeding females have more body mass than non-breeding females between the months of March and September with a difference of around 10 kg (20lb) more than non-breeding females. Central barren-ground bull caribou are perhaps the most diverse in configuration and can grow to be very high and wide. [151] Dunder was later changed to Donder and—in other works—Donner (in German, "thunder") and Blixem was later changed to Bliksem, then Blitzen (blitz being German for "lightning"). The amount of lichen in a diet is found more in non-pregnant adult diets than pregnant individuals due to the lack of nutritional value. Caribou use these large, sharp-edged hooves to dig through the snow and uncover the lichens that sustain them in winter months. The small isolated population of 200 animals was at risk from predation and habitat loss. They lived 21,000 years ago. From November to December, non-breeding females have more body mass than breeding females, as non-breeding females are able to focus their energies towards storage during colder months rather than lactation and reproduction. Reindeer have two layers of fur. Habitat Reindeer are found in the arctic tundra and subarctic forests of northern North America, Greenland, and northern Europe to east Asia. The Taimyr herd of migrating Siberian tundra reindeer (R. t. sibiricus) in Russia is the largest wild reindeer herd in the world,[4][5] varying between 400,000 and 1,000,000. [2][94] Other North American populations, the boreal woodland caribou for example, are largely sedentary. Caribou are mammals that live in the northern regions of Europe, North America, Asia, and Greenland. Two males will lock each other's antlers together and try to push each other away. They have nasal turbinate bones which serve to increase the surface area in their nostrils. Reindeer mainly eat grasses, herbs, sedges, mosses, twigs, fungi and lichens. A complex set of terms describes each part of the antler and relates it to its various uses". They used for winter clothing "because each hair is hollow and fills with air trapping heat. Body masses of both breeding and non-breeding females peaks in September. Biologists call this activity "cratering" because of the crater-like cavity the caribou’s hooves leave in the snow. Although lichens are high in carbohydrates, they are lacking in essential proteins that vascular plants provide. The most dominant males can collect as many as 15–20 females to mate with. Reindeer meat is very tender and lean. [13] Environment Canada reported in 2011 that there were approximately 34,000 boreal woodland caribou in 51 ranges remaining in Canada (Environment Canada, 2011b). They ran out of wood for the steamboats, and had to go back down 40 miles to the wood pile to pick up some more wood. The Taimyr herdof migrating Siberian tundra reindeer (R. t. sibiricus) in Russia is the largest wild reindeer herd in the world, varying between 400,000 … Some wolf packs as well as individual grizzly bears in Canada may follow and live off of a particular reindeer herd year round.[115][116]. Guided tours to visit the herd on the hill take place daily starting at 11am, and visitors are advised to dress for the weather. With 185,000 reindeer (2001), the industry produces 2,000 tons of reindeer meat and generates 35 million euros annually. The males stop eating at this time and lose a great deal of their body reserves. They have short, stocky bodies with short legs and stumpy tails, a bluntly rounded muzzle, small eyes, and small ears … However, reindeer were not bred in captivity, though they were tamed for milking as well as for use as draught animals or beasts of burden. In the traditional lifestyle of the Inuit people, the Northern First Nations people, the Alaska Natives, and the Kalaallit of Greenland, reindeer is an important source of food, clothing, shelter and tools. "[72], A darker belly colour may be caused by two mutations of MC1R. The caribou feeds the wolf, but it is the wolf who keeps the caribou strong. The Porcupine caribou and the barren-ground caribou form large herds and undertake lengthy seasonal migrations from birthing grounds to summer and winter feeding grounds in the tundra and taiga. They are diurnal animals and they live in herds, the largest groups numbering tens of thousands, forming during summer months. In particular, caribou were extirpated in many areas of eastern North America in the beginning of the 20th century. These members of the deer family dig for food using their large hooves. So far, it is considered that the European and Asian reindeer and American caribou were the same animals; however, recent studies show that each evolved from different species, although they are related. [4] Caribou and reindeer numbers have fluctuated historically, but many herds are in decline across their range. Large males with large antlers do most of the mating. [128] Furthermore, Lapin Poron liha, fresh reindeer meat completely produced and packed in Finnish Sápmi, is protected in Europe with PDO classification.[129][130]. Northern populations, which usually are relatively small, are whiter, while southern populations, which typically are relatively large, are darker. When snow begins to fall, caribou move south and travel to more sheltered climes where they can feed on moss or lichens. [87], The environmental variations play a large part in reindeer nutrition, as winter nutrition is crucial to adult and neonatal survival rates. He affirms that the "true woodland caribou is very rare, in very great difficulties and requires the most urgent of attention. Wilmer, Pat; Stone, Graham; Johnston, Ian (2009). The historic province of Västerbotten in Sweden has a reindeer in its coat of arms. [114] Wolverines will take newborn calves or birthing cows, as well as (less commonly) infirm adults. There are large population differences among individual herds and the size of individual herds has varied greatly since 1970. During winter, reindeer travel to forested areas to forage under the snow. Migrating reindeer can be negatively affected by parasite loads. They were first used by people to do work in Lappland and Siberia. [58][60][61] Velvet lumps in March can develop into a rack measuring more than a metre in length (3 ft) by August. Large populations of wild reindeer are still found in Norway, Finland, Siberia, Greenland, Alaska and Canada. "[34], In 2005, an analysis of mtDNA found differences between the caribou from Newfoundland, Labrador, southwestern Canada, and southeastern Canada, but maintained all in R. t. [2], In North America, R. t. dawsoni is extinct,[123][11][10] R. t. pearyi is endangered, R. t. caribou is designated as threatened and some individual populations are endangered. It can be combined with a moose and wolf hunt as well. His grandmother was a member of the Caribou Clan, who travelled with the caribou as a means to survive. Domestication is believed to have begun between the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Golden eagles prey on calves and are the most prolific hunter on the calving grounds. There is strong regional variation in Rangifer herd size. On the tenth day, they came back and they said there was still caribou going across the river night and day. what is now eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Nunavut (the barren-ground caribou population) and Labrador, Southern Canada and the northwestern U.S. mainland, The High Arctic islands of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 18:13. Their coats are thick with hollow hairs, which provide outstanding insulation. This increase in infection is a concern for wildlife managers. [citation needed] Tormenting insects keep caribou on the move searching for windy areas like hilltops and mountain ridges, rock reefs, lakeshore and forest openings, or snow patches that offer respite from the buzzing horde. [69], The colour of the fur varies considerably, both between individuals and depending on season and subspecies. Eadem est feminae marisque natura, eadem forma magnitudoque cornuum. Infections create an effect known as culling: infected migrating animals are less likely to complete the migration. Some recent authorities have considered them all valid, even suggesting that they are quite distinct. His 2001 children's book entitled Caribou Song/atíhko níkamon was selected as one of the "Top 10 Children’s Books" by the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail. [45][46][47], The "glacial-interglacial cycles of the upper Pleistocene had a major influence on the evolution" of Rangifer tarandus and other Arctic and sub-Arctic species. Reindeer are not native to Iceland. Lemming, any of 20 species of small rodents, some of which undertake large, swarming migrations. Bloodsucking insects, such as mosquitoes (Culicidae), black flies (Simuliidae), and botflies and deer botflies (Oestridae, specifically, the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma tarandi) and the reindeer nose botfly (Cephenemyia trompe)), are a plague to reindeer during the summer and can cause enough stress to inhibit feeding and calving behaviours. Reindeer Research Project Craftivity. (1987). [87] Lichens are a crucial part of the reindeer diet; however, they are less prevalent in the diet of pregnant reindeer compared to non-pregnant individuals. They mainly eat lichens in winter, especially reindeer lichen – a unique adaptation among mammals – they are the only large mammal able to metabolise lichen owing to specialised bacteria and protozoa in their gut. Reindeer antlers are powdered and sold as an aphrodisiac, or as an nutritional or medicinal supplement, to Asian markets. The frequency of the knee-clicks is one of a range of signals that establish relative positions on a dominance scale among reindeer. The caribou came pouring out, until the earth was almost covered with them. [78] The males (or "bulls" as they are often called) are typically larger (to an extent which varies between the different subspecies), measuring 180–214 cm (71–84 in) in length and usually weighing 159–182 kg (351–401 lb). [67], According to a respected Igloolik elder, Noah Piugaattuk, who was one of the last outpost camp leaders,[68] caribou (tuktu) antlers[63]. In addition to two small ones, called "dew claws," they have two large, crescent-shaped toes that support most of their weight and serve as shovels when digging for food under snow. Rangifer herd size varies greatly in different geographic regions. [8] Barren-ground caribou are also found in Kitaa in Greenland, but the larger herds are in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut.[9]. Range and Habitat. [79] In May or June the calves are born. Reindeer are ruminants, having a four-chambered stomach. "[127], Woodland caribou have disappeared from most of their original southern range and were designated as threatened in 2002 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, (COSEWIC). The reindeer from Svalbard are the smallest. "In North America and Eurasia the species has long been an important resource—in many areas. They are flattened, compact and relatively dense. The migrations of Porcupine caribou herds are among the longest of any mammal. 645–663. [2] This includes both sedentary and migratory populations. In the largest subspecies, the antlers of large males can range up to 100 cm (39 in) in width and 135 cm (53 in) in beam length. [70][Notes 4] Fur is the primary insulation factor that allows reindeer to regulate their core body temperature in relation to their environment, the thermogradient, even if the temperature rises to 100 °F (38 °C). The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America,[3] is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal, and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia, and North America. (Environment Canada, 2011b). A reindeer can swim easily and quickly, normally at about 6.5 km/h (4 mph) but, if necessary, at 10 km/h (6 mph) and migrating herds will not hesitate to swim across a large lake or broad river. [90] After 45 days, the calves are able to graze and forage, but continue suckling until the following autumn when they become independent from their mothers.[91]. Siberian reindeer owners also use the reindeer to ride on (Siberian reindeer are larger than their Scandinavian relatives). In 1939, they were living the traditional life style at one of their hunting camps in Koyukuk near the location of what is now the Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge. The grey wolf is the most effective natural predator of adult reindeer and sometimes takes large numbers, especially during the winter. 70% of the meat is sold to slaughterhouses. Reindeer is the European name for the species while in North America, the species is known as Caribou. There are about 2.5 million domesticated reindeer in nine countries, with about 100,000 people tending to them, being approximately half the world’s total reindeer population. [103][104][105], In November 2016, it was reported that more than 81,000 reindeer in Russia had died as a result of climate change. Karasov, W.H. The descriptions have been interpreted as being of reindeer living in the southern Ural Mountains in c. 350 BC[20], A deer-like animal described by Julius Caesar in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico (chapter 6.26) from the Hercynian Forest in the year 53 BC is most certainly to be interpreted as reindeer:[20][147]. Overall, currently Reindeer are classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are decreasing. Males live four years less than the females, whose maximum longevity is about 17 years. [90] Dugmore noted that, in their seasonal migrations, the herd follows a doe for that reason. These are countercurrent exchange systems with the same fluid, usually blood, in a circuit, used for both directions of flow.[74]. Antlers vary in length, circumference, and shape depending on habitat and subspecies. To add to the spirit of the season, Destination Downtown Newton Alliance (DDNA) brought reindeer for families to take pictures with before taking part in the courthouse lighting and the chamber’s Reverse Lighted Holiday Parade. [72], A study by researchers from University College London in 2011 revealed that reindeer can see light with wavelengths as short as 320 nm (i.e. At this time, males take part in fights that leave them exhausted and injured. They subsisted on caribou year-round, eating dried caribou meat in the winter. [10][11] Historically, the range of the sedentary boreal woodland caribou covered more than half of Canada[12] and into the northern states in the U.S. Woodland caribou have disappeared from most of their original southern range and were designated as threatened in 2002 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). "[79], While overall widespread and numerous, some subspecies are rare and at least one has already gone extinct. Reindeer were introduced into Alaska near the end of the 19th century; they interbred with the native caribou subspecies there. Shoulder height is usually 85 to 150 cm (33 to 59 in), and the tail is 14 to 20 cm (5.5 to 7.9 in) long. Fur and meat are an important income source. Inuit artists from the barren lands, incorporate depictions of caribou—and items made from caribou antlers and skin—in carvings, drawings, prints and sculpture. [48] Androgens play essential role in cervids antler formation. [140], The use of reindeer as semi-domesticated livestock in Alaska was introduced in the late 19th century by the U.S. Revenue Cutter Service, with assistance from Sheldon Jackson, as a means of providing a livelihood for Native peoples there. Dominant males control access to groups numbering 5 to 15 females. [124] Caribou numbers have fluctuated historically, but many herds are in decline across their range. 268: "Dicitur Rangyfer quasi ramifer". However, Aldrovandi and Konrad Gesner[21] – thought that rangifer and tarandus were two separate animals. In 1991 COSEWIC assigned "endangered status" to the Banks Island and High Arctic populations of Peary caribou. [48] Antler size measured in number of points reflects the nutritional status of the reindeer and climate variation of its environment. [71] In 1913 Dugmore noted how the woodland caribou swim so high out of the water, unlike any other mammal, because their hollow, "air-filled, quill-like hair" acts as a supporting "life jacket. The main goal of the research, was to "elicit not only what the Gwich'in know about caribou anatomy, but how they see caribou and what they say and believe about caribou that defines themselves, their dietary and nutritional needs, and their subsistence way of life. Longer autumns leading to increased amounts of freezing rain created a few inches of ice over lichen, starving many reindeer.[106]. [99] During the late Pleistocene era, reindeer occurred as far south as Nevada and Tennessee in North America and as far south as Spain in Europe. At the top this horn spreads out like the palm of a hand or the branches of a tree. [138], DNA analysis indicates that reindeer were independently domesticated in Fennoscandia and Western Russia (and possibly Eastern Russia). "[55][56] While antlers of bull woodland caribou are typically smaller than barren-ground caribou, they can be over one metre (3') across. 859–863, Cap. They have the largest antlers relative to body size among living deer species. "[2] The word rein is of Norse origin. They "codified traditional principles of caribou management into tribal law" which include "limits on the harvest of caribou and procedures to be followed in processing and transporting caribou meat" and limits on the number of caribou to be taken per hunting trip.[136]. [16]:IV[17]:16[16]:IV In Sápmi, reindeer are used to pull a pulk,[18] a Nordic sled. [92] Dominant males, those with larger body size and antler racks, inseminate more than one doe a season. [8] The barren-ground caribou, Porcupine caribou, and Peary caribou live in the tundra, while the shy boreal woodland caribou prefer the boreal forest. How do Reindeer keep warm? [34][35] An analysis of mtDNA in 2005 found differences between the caribou from Newfoundland, Labrador, southwestern Canada and southeastern Canada, but maintained all in R. tarandus caribou. [39] "Across the range of a species, individuals may display considerable morphological, genetic, and behavioural variability reflective of both plasticity and adaptation to local environments. A caribou statue was erected at the centre of the Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial, marking the spot in France where hundreds of soldiers from Newfoundland were killed and wounded in World War I and there is a replica in Bowring Park in St. John's, Newfoundland's capital city. Mountain caribou are typically the most massive with the largest circumference measurements. [73], Blood moving into the legs is cooled by blood returning to the body in a countercurrent heat exchange (CCHE), a highly efficient means of minimising heat loss through the skin's surface. [57] Woodland caribou antlers are thicker and broader than those of the barren-ground caribou and their legs and heads are longer. This also enables them to dig down (an activity known as "cratering") through the snow to their favourite food, a lichen known as reindeer lichen (Cladonia rangiferina). [67] Females in good nutritional condition, for example, during a mild winter with good winter range quality, may grow new antlers earlier as antler growth requires high intake. Reindeer antlers are powdered and sold to Asian markets as an aphrodisiac, medicinal or nutritional supplement. [95] The European populations are known to have shorter migrations. Habitat, Diet, and Behavior at Animal Corner Scientific Names, Diet, Habitat and More at Wikipedia Reindeer Pant to Stay Cool at BBC Nature ... Reindeer Tree Map and Job Application at Welcome to Room 36 Writing connection to The Great Reindeer Rebellion at Buzzing About 2nd Grade [citation needed] There is also some evidence to suggest that on occasion, especially in the spring when they are nutritionally stressed,[109] they will feed on small rodents (such as lemmings),[110] fish (such as Arctic char), and bird eggs. This word may go back to the Saami word raingo. Environmental Physiology of Animals. [90] When a female has undergone nutritional stress, it is possible for her to not reproduce for the year. Jeff Flocken, the DC Office Director for the International Fund for Animal Welfare, tells host Bruce Gellerman what’s at stake. They are superbly adapted to cold, wind, and snow. Reindeer are sexually mature at 1 - 3 years old. Their home ranges tend be as big as 190 square miles (500 square km), according to Encyclopedia Britannica. [51], The coat has two layers of fur: a dense woolly undercoat and longer-haired overcoat consisting of hollow, air-filled hairs. [39], The canonical Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.) Habitat and Range. In this way, their legs for example are kept cool, maintaining the core body temperature nearly 30 °C (54 °F) higher with less heat lost to the environment. ", "Caribou Foes: Natural Predators in the Wilderness", "Six Ways Climate Change Is Waging War on Christmas", Lapland Reindeer meat protected in the EU, "Quebec's Carnaval is worth freezing your a** off for", "Linguistic Team Studies Caribou Anatomy", "Genetic analyses reveal independent domestication origins of Eurasian reindeer", Europe's last wild reindeer herds in peril, "Reindeer Herding: a virtual guide to reindeer and those who herd them", "Technical viability of mobile solar photovoltaic systems for indigenous nomadic communities in northern latitudes", War memorial to honor WWII reindeer battalions, "Flying Reindeer and Santa Claus: Fact, Fiction and Myth", "The Legendary Role of Reindeer in Christmas, "Yule Laugh, Yule Cry: 10 Things You Didn't Know About Beloved Holiday Songs", The Reindeer Portal, Source of Information About Reindeer Husbandry Worldwide, 1935 Reindeer Herding in the Northwest Territories, General information on Caribou and Reindeer, Reindeer hunting as World Heritage – a ten-thousand-year-long tradition, Reindeer Research Program – Alaska reindeer research and industry development, "The Other 364 Days of the Year: The Real Lives of Wild Reindeer Categories: Biology and Ecosystems", Newfoundland Five-Year Caribou Strategy Seeks to Address Declining Populations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reindeer&oldid=991952802, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles with disputed statements from February 2017, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopedia Americana with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Reindeer range: North American (green) and Eurasian (red). In the CCHE mechanism, in cold weather, blood vessels are closely knotted and intertwined with arteries to the skin and appendages that carry warm blood with veins returning to the body that carry cold blood causing the warm arterial blood to exchange heat with the cold venous blood. Isolation of Rangifer tarandus in refugia during the last glacial – the Wisconsin in North America and the Weichselian in Eurasia-shaped "intraspecific genetic variability" particularly between the North American and Eurasian parts of the Arctic. Voluntary restrictions on hunting by local people are in place, but have not stopped population declines. In late autumn or early winter after the rut, male reindeer lose their antlers, growing a new pair the next summer with a larger rack than the previous year. And hybridization with domesticated reindeer is a potential problem for some populations. (Environment Canada, 2011b). Within an hour of birth, calves have the ability to walk after their mother, and at one day old they are able to run fast. Antlers begin to grow on male reindeer in March or April and on female reindeer in May or June. Caribou Habitat Map is a Map in Far Cry New Dawn. [2] Young caribou can already outrun an Olympic sprinter when only a day old. The logo for Umeå University features three reindeer. It may be these animals that Conrad Gessner had seen or heard of. Of particular interest is the body composition and diet of breeding and non-breeding females between seasons. Flexner, Stuart Berg, and Leonore Crary Hauck, eds. If you would like your students to complete a reindeer research project, this craftivity is for you! The antlers' main beams begin at the brow "extending posterior over the shoulders and bowing so that the tips point forward. A reindeer is a reindeer everywhere in the world apart from North America where it’s known as a Caribou. While the subspecies R. t. granti and R. t. groenlandicus are not designated as threatened, many individual herds—including some of the largest—are declining and there is much concern at the local level.[124]. In summer their footpads turn spongy to give extra traction, while in winter the pads tighten and shrink to expose the edge of the hoof so they can cut into the snow and ice so that they don’t slip. They have specialized hooves that will adapt in relation to the season. [148][149], Around the world, public interest in reindeer peaks in the Christmas period. [3], In 1986 Kurtén reported that the oldest reindeer fossil was an "antler of tundra reindeer type from the sands of Süssenborn" in the Pleistocene (Günz) period (680,000 to 620,000 BP). Some populations of North American caribou, for example many herds in the barren-ground caribou subspecies and some woodland caribou in Ungava and Labrador, migrate the farthest of any terrestrial mammal, travelling up to 5,000 km (3,000 mi) a year, and covering 1,000,000 km2 (400,000 sq mi). Depending on the number of hunt days, trophies, hunters in camp and whether a helicopter transfer is required, a Reindeer hunt in Russia may cost between $2,500 and $19,000. Reindeer occurred in .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}.
2020 reindeer habitat map