Most importantly, it offers a unifying vision of the contribution that different types of knowledge can make to social care, and one that SCIE can reflect in its work to develop appropriate methods of reviewing knowledge. Thus, it is not unusual for a person to reject the new evidence and cling to the original belief. This is where credentials, awards, and know-how play a role. Conflict theory holds that all societies are inherently unequal, and that power … The social work scientist then may ask new, related questions, and progress through the stages anew. Importance of Macro Social Work. Sagan’s (1987) discussion of critical thinking indicated that it does not matter how much we might like the conclusions drawn from a train of reasoning; what matters is the extent to which the chain of logic “works.” He also contended that untestable propositions are worthless—if you cannot check out the assertions, it is not worthwhile considering. In our example, the investigators asked what might be “the differences, particularly in food security status and use of federal support programs, between traditional, short-term emergency pantry users and an emerging population of long-term users” (Kaiser & Cafer, 2016, p. 46). A fact is information that can be objectively proven or demonstrated. We hear hundreds of statements of fact and opinion every day—from family, friends, the media, and experts in our field. Module 1 Chapter 1: Social Work and "Ways of Knowing", Module 1 Chapter 2: Research and the Professional Ethics Mandate, Module 1 Chapter 3: Ethical Conduct of Research, Module 2 Chapter 1: The Nature of Social Work Research Questions, Module 2 Chapter 2: The Link Between Theory, Research, and Social Justice. They may be employed by various nonprofits and grassroots organizations to raise funds, write grants, drum up support, plan infrastructure. Inductive reasoning is a case of applying cause and effect logic where a conclusion is based on a series of observations. Much of the science on which we often rely to find answers to perplexing questions is derived from a philosophical position called positivism. social work research topics in question are related to practice – theoretical research is very important but nothing beats practical knowledge and efficient practical intervention methods and … Similarly, empiricism is about proven knowledge, but contends that proof also may come through the application of logic or through direct observable evidence. Despite limitations, pseudoscience does become applied. Critical thinking extends beyond simple memorization of facts and information; it involves the analysis and evaluation of information, leading to reasoned, “thought-out” judgments and conclusions. generation of new knowledge is the result of “… our interaction with the world. Let’s look at what these descriptions have in common: Step 1. Social workers may be community builders or community organizers. These may very well express others’ ways of knowing, based on their own experiences with majority culture, not only based on gender. Practice models provide social workers with a blueprint of how to help others based on the underlying … They include: The following either fall short of being demonstrable facts or represent opinion: Based on this analysis, the social work intern should consider the “expert opinion” of the supervisor but should also seek more information to confirm the hypothesis of a substance use disorder. We cannot work effectively with others if we do not have an appreciation for this diversity of understanding, thinking, and believing. However, researchers have observed that “the propensity for the group to display groupthink symptoms” is greatest when the group is characterized by a high degree of cohesion based on the socioemotional dimension and a low degree of task-oriented cohesion (Street, 2017, p. 78). The advice coming from that observation was that people should limit their consumption of cholesterol-containing foods (like eggs) to prevent heart disease. An opinion is a personal belief or point of view, is subjective, and proof is not relevant. In our food security example, the authors concluded with a new question: would raising minimum wage or establishing a living wage be a better means of supporting families in the precarious position of long-term dependence on emergency food pantry support? This is difficult to condone, particularly in light of emerging evidence about certain combination approaches, like medications combined with evidence-supported behavioral therapies (medication assisted treatment, or MAT), having significant effectiveness for a range of individuals under a range of circumstances (Banta-Green, 2015). What a person knows through faith is considered to require no further analysis or proof—that is the nature of faith. Facts can change opinions but opinions cannot change facts. If any conditions changed, you might have noticed them again. 1.6 VARIABLES AND ITS TYPES 1.7. But, look at what happens to those sensory perceptions next: In terms of the information processing model, once something has been perceived or an event has been experienced by an individual (perception), the perception moves to the memory system. The group’s informal leader announced they had come this far and it looked safe enough; he encouraged everyone to follow him out onto the lava bed to get a closer look. Sensory evidence provides people of all ages with a great deal of experiential knowledge about the physical and social world. What is important in this label is the word “opinion.” Experience does not change facts, it shapes opinion. If you've decided on a career in social work, start your planning as early as possible. As noted in the reference list to this module, the investigators in our study example published their findings in a professional journal (see Kaiser & Cafer, 2016). Distinguishing between Facts and Opinions. For example, an untested treatment approach to helping people overcome the effects of traumatic experiences might have the unintended result of their being re-traumatized or further traumatized. Social Learning Theory. As you can see, the scientific process potentially incorporates multiple sources of knowledge that we have discussed in this module and allows for inclusion of various methods of investigation depending on the nature of the research questions being asked. There exists a strong, constantly developing sense of self in relation to the external world. British Journal of Social Work, Vol. Logic and reasoning represent thought processes that can result in knowledge. This approach is different from that taken by Zuboff (1988), Drucker (1993), Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) and Reich (2001) who sought to provide a more generic understanding (Loo, 2017). For example, the expertise of social work supervisors was (at least partially) influenced by their supervisors’ expertise, which was influenced by their supervisors’ expertise, and so on. An important contribution to our understanding of knowledge is an anthropological appreciation that knowledge is constructed within a cultural context. Sometimes the original insights we gain from these creations make them seem like sheer genius. Third, knowledge comes through basic learning principles involving reinforcement and punishment of behavior, as well as observational learning of others’ behaviors. Emotion and affect. Western philosophy, rational logic, and science are situated within this context—as one of the multitude of epistemologies that exist, not as the first or the most significant, but simply as one of many. For three backgound papers, see: Pawson, R (2003) A source of individual difference is the degree to which they attend to different types of information. Because the ability to identify and label emotions (knowledge of your own and those of other people) has such a significant impact on interpersonal interactions and behaviors, a great deal of attention has been directed towards trying to understand individual differences in “emotional intelligence” or “EQ” (see Goleman, 1995). They tend to learn by listening to others, lacking confidence in their own original ideas or thoughts. The Problem with Expert Opinion.Over years of practice, social workers develop a wealth of experience in identifying and addressing certain problems encountered in routine practice. There is a heavy reliance on authority as a source of knowledge. Social work refers to multi-disciplinary endeavours that seek to improve the quality of life and wellbeing of individuals, groups or communities through interventions on behalf of those afflicte… Table 1. Let’s consider an example that a social work intern experienced in practice. These conditions provoked the human mind to fill in gaps with logical information. Many alternative and complementary health approaches lack a strong scientific evidence base—that does not necessarily mean that they offer no health benefits, but it may be that they do not help and sometimes they cause harm, especially with overuse. flesh out, with the wider social care community, in its future programme of work. A lack of knowledge of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) among children’s social workers means professionals may be making decisions without understanding the duties the law places on them, said Claire Barcham, professional practice development advisor at The College of Social Work. For example, a young child might experiment with using “naughty” swear words under different conditions. Acknowledging the collaborative, constructive, dynamic nature of scientific knowledge development, consider a quote Sir Isaac Newton borrowed from an earlier popular saying: “If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”. It is why we remember news events that “hit close to home” compared to other reported world events. Further collecting of data and deciding the best course of action to solve the problem is carried by case worker. The social worker does not need to wait for these problems to be observed; the knowledge gained through reasoning and logic is sufficient to warrant paying attention to the possibility of their being present or emerging. For this reason, we can include other sources of knowledge derived through faith. It may not be necessary to continue pitting these two ways of knowing against each other. Active listening means paying attention to, and remembering, what others tell you. And, that is the externalization of what we call love.”, “Mindfulness, on the other hand, differentiates itself into the multi-dimensional expanse of external reality. ... A list of knowledge types and knowledge management concepts. This EMDR therapy example fits into that part of the ocean about which we do not know enough. In other words, what is today an alternative or complementary treatment approach may eventually become a standard practice based on evidence of its effectiveness and safety. One person might have faith in the expert opinion shared by a parent, grandparent, sibling, or best friend. Second, people engage in internal mental operations we call cognition—they engage in thinking and problem solving—to create meaning from their experiences. Kaiser and Cafer (2016) described their research methodology for randomly selecting their sample of study participants, their research variables and measurement tools, and their data collection procedures. Relatively few facts are present in this example. There exists a great degree of variability in different individuals’ vision, for example. Quantum perception embraces all potential space-time events exponentially. This chapter is largely about social work knowledge—how social work professionals come to “know” what we know, and how that knowledge can be leveraged to inform practice. In general, human beings rely on information acquired through their senses as being reliable evidence. We need to accept a degree of uncertainty as complex problems are unraveled, because science is imperfect. In the early 1970s, a link between cholesterol levels in the body and heart disease was detected. Also, emotion and interpretation are seen as important features in social work (Taylor and White, 2006). For example, we understand that the elements of a parenting education program delivered to two-parent, well-resourced, privileged, reasonably empowered families of one racial or ethnic background may be grossly inappropriate for families existing in a far different reality, facing very different challenges, very differently resourced or privileged, and responding to different experiences of discrimination, oppression, exploitation, threats of violence, and micro-aggression. Why does this scenario make you feel uncomfortable? In deductive reasoning, we develop a specific conclusion out of assembling a set of general, truthful principles (see Table 1-1). 1 Pawson, R et al (Nov 2002) Types and quality of social care knowledge: stage 1: a classification of types of social care knowledge Report to SCIE. Silence. Language helps describe what we know about the world, both for ourselves and to communicate with others. Unfortunately, they ripple through mainstream political, social, religious and economic issues in every nation”(p. 13). HYPOTHESIS: SOURCES, FORMULATION, ATTRIBUTES AND TYPES 1.7.1 Criteria for formulation of Hypothesis ... provides the knowledge for social work for building theory and for practice also. First, they utilize all five senses to explore the world: vision, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.     Imagination and Intuition.Sometimes what a person “knows” is not based on external events or objects, knowledge might be generated as new ideas or concepts completely through internal processes. The person is left with few choices: change the original belief/attitude to fit the new information, remain in limbo with the two in conflict, or refute the new information and stick to the original belief/attitude. For each statement, decide if it is accurate (True) or not (False). If analytical reasoning is non-existent in social work, tacit knowledge will become a cognitive prison hindering social workers' utilisation of a broader knowledge base in practice (Nordlander, 2006). Step 3. Sensory evidence provides people of all ages with a great deal of experiential knowledge about the physical and social wo… What if the original was wrong from the start? Clearly, the knowledge gained through reasoning is only as good as the weakest link in the chain of ideas and logic applied. This is because knowledge is purely philosophical; debates span centuries, arguments supersede fact and everyone has a different opinion about what is, or is not, knowledge. Within the context of critical debate about knowledge, values and skills, a highly respected team of contributors focus their attention on three key areas: social work with children and families; community care and social work with adults; and probation and social … Parents tormented by watching their child disappear into the altered state of schizophrenia, individuals haunted by the cravings induced by addiction, anyone who experiences wrenching grief over the death of someone they love: these people are particularly susceptible to pseudoscientific claims. It requires that knowledge workers want to work for the organization in preference to all other opportunities.” Here’s the key point, and the key challenge: Knowledge workers must manage themselves. One type of community social work practice is community organization. Another person might place greater faith in the opinions expressed by celebrities, sports figures, news anchors, or political leaders. These perspectives contribute to social work having a rich array of research methodologies available for understanding social problems, diverse populations, and social phenomena. The social work student must communicate effectively and sensitively with other students, faculty, staff, clients and other professionals. It all begins with an observation about something that arouses curiosity. But, it is human nature to ignore a great deal of the information collected by our sensory systems as being irrelevant. Cosmic balance is simply the way the universe transcodes the raw potential of quantum energy into unbridled happiness.”. For some individuals, religious teachings provide them with knowledge surrounding certain topics. Thus, the “refrigerator mother” misconception was influenced by logical fallacy. Being a persistent user (versus short-term user) was predicted by having Social Security, retirement, pension, or SSI/disability payment income. Carl Sagan (1987) argued that critical thinking is, “the ability to construct, and to understand, a reasoned argument and—especially important—to recognize a fallacious or fraudulent argument” (p. 12). Imagination, creativity, and intuition are special forms of cognitive activity, resulting in the creation of unique forms of knowledge. The top in-demand job skills that social workers need to have, and a list of social work skills and examples for resumes, cover letters, and interviews. These ways of knowing include: Let’s examine each of these ways of knowing in a little more detail, and consider their implications for knowledge in social work. This helps to arrive at the exact possible situation of the client and also help to understand both psychological and personality factor which leads the client to difficulties. We might say the same thing about a person’s apparent cognitive leaps that we might call intuition: seeming to know something without being able to trace where the knowledge was derived; it comes from reasoning that happens at an unconscious level. But, language also has the power to shape our understanding, as well. The short-term memory “buffer” is typically limited in space to around 5-7 items at a time and lasts for only about 18-30 seconds. This is quite different from the positivist perspective concerning single, provable truths that are waiting to be discovered. Just as “beauty is in the eye of the beholder,” perceptions of another person’s expertise are relative. Critical thinking in social work practice involves initially suspending judgment, then engaging in the process of generating relevant questions, considering assumptions, seeking information and divergent viewpoints, and applying logical, creative problem solving. The source of knowledge is internal, and the authority listened to is self—and this knowledge is more important than knowledge from external sources. These cognitions may take a few trials to accurately emerge. Take a moment to complete the following activity. Faith. Religious faith is only one aspect of how faith relates to knowledge. You end up deferring to greater knowledge for the area of expertise, such as a doctor or … No, not really. Scientific results are wrong sometimes. Thinking about what we know and how we come to know it is critically important to understanding social work values, beliefs, and practices. This is what leads to that “aha” moment when a new idea is born. The supervisor indicated that the proper assessment would be a substance use disorder. Because of its focus on policy change and fighting against unjust government or economic practices, macro social work ultimately builds stronger communities and provides better quality of life for the people living in them. Because of its focus on policy change and fighting against unjust government or economic practices, macro social work ultimately builds stronger communities and provides better quality of life for the people living in them. If a memory is not converted into a long-term memory, it cannot be retrieved later. Behaviorism. The Problem with Groupthink. The observation leads the curious social worker to develop a specific research question. This information is all available to you, and you might have paid attention to them when you first sat down to read. When drawing boundaries around an idea, topic, or subject area, it helps to think about how and where the information for the field is produced. Module 2 Chapter 3: What is Empirical Literature & Where can it be Found? It describes the different ways that knowledge that is already known is acquired and applied and also the way that new knowledgecan be created. Again, quoting Carl Sagan (1987): “Of course, scientists make mistakes in trying to understand the world, but there is a built-in error-correcting mechanism: The collective enterprise of creative thinking and skeptical thinking together keeps the field on track” (p. 12). 3. 6 Types of Social Power Feldman writes that according to French and Raven (1959), and later Raven (1974), there are six bases of social … For example, a baby might hear food being prepared, see and smell the food, touch it and taste it. In a 1987 essay,The Fine Art of Baloney Detection: How Not to be Fooled, Carl Sagan addressed the importance of critical thinking and a healthy degree of skepticism about the information and knowledge that we encounter. Reason and logic. There is a knowledge that is the result of the understanding of the relationship of ideas to one another. Think about how young children come to understand the world and all kinds of phenomena they experience. These implications are viewed the same way other cultures are viewed—as cultural differences when being compared, not as deficiencies, or “otherness.” This diversity of experience perspective (rather than a disability perspective) could be applied to other topics, such as autism, reflecting human neurodiversity rather than a disorder. Francis Bacon is credited with presenting an approach to scientific method that is a foundation for science today (Dick, 1955). Knowledge derived from experts and authority is not foolproof, however. What you will learn from reading this chapter is: The study of knowledge and knowing about the world around us called epistemology, and represents one of the major branches of philosophy. Social knowledge is arbitrary and knowable only by being told or demonstrated by other people. In other words, what we know, how we come to know it, and how we think about knowing all are influenced by the personal, historical, and cultural contexts surrounding our experiences. Proponents of these approaches adopt what Gambrill and Gibbs (2017) refer to as a “casual approach” to evidence, where weak evidence is accepted equally to strong evidence, and an open mind is equated with being non-critical. Dissociative disorders do not occur in men, only in women (they are more common among women but do occur among men). Social work is an academic discipline and practice-based profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups, communities and society as a whole in an effort to meet basic needs and enhance social functioning, self-determination, collective responsibility, and overall well-being. Social work is sometimes termed as “helping people help themselves;” a social worker facilitates change in the behavior of individuals and communities, both large (e.g., a school) and small (e.g., a family). Orienting theories also attempt to explain large-scale societal problems such as poverty, mental illness, crime, … But science is not the only way of knowing, and it is important for social workers to understand the place science occupies in an array of ways knowledge is developed and applied. Or, is it based on assumptions and personal views, representing a personal perception, judgment, or belief (opinion)? The concept of silence refers to an absence of self-expression and personal voice. For example, a social work investigator and her colleague observed an emerging population of people who rely on emergency food pantry support for relatively long periods of time—despite the programs’ intended period of emergency support being relatively short-term (Kaiser & Cafer, 2016). The problem lies in non-critical reliance on expert opinion. Subjective Knowledge. Subjective knowledge is highly individualistic because personal experience, “inward listening” and intuition are major sources of knowledge. False or erroneous memories were more likely when the original facts were scarce (versus robust), the new information seemed true (rather than questionably reliable), and the person was highly motivated to retell the story. The women’s development of knowledge was heavily influenced by their cultural experiences with authority, particularly in learning from family and schools. "Knowledge is power." The ten signs are summarized here. At intake in a mental health center, Mr. R (aged 34) describes recent scary incidents where he has experienced a loss of memory for certain events and found himself in dangerous situations.
2020 types of knowledge in social work